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TERM PAPER EXAMPLES &
MORE EXAMPLE TERM PAPERS IN THE SCIENCES

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

The Human Hand : A 4 page paper that provides an overview of the structure of the human hand. This paper considers the role of muscles, ligaments, tendons and bone in creating the movement of the hand. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Humanhan.wps

Anatomy Of The Shoulder : A detailed, 11 page look at the shoulder's anatomy, and some of the injuries that can occur from common activities such as throwing and general overextension. Techniques for treatment and care of the shoulder are presented. Also useful to those studying sports & sports medicine. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Shouanat.wps

Shoulder Injuries & Sports Injuries / Common Injuries, Evaluation and Treatment :
A 10 page paper that provides an overview of the problem of shoulder injuries in sports medicine, and evaluates current treatment options as well as prevention models. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Shoulinj.wps

Rotator Cuff Injuries : A 9 page paper discussing the causes and treatments of rotator cuff injuries as well as alternative therapies. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Rotator.doc

Rotator Cuff Injuries / Conservative Care Utilizing Exercise : A 5 page overview of conservative care for rotator cuff injuries. Emphasizes the appropriateness of carefully-designed exercise regimes. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Rotcuff.wps

Muscle Strength and Running Speed : A 22 page thesis that supports the correlation between muscle strength and increased running speed for non-professional athletes in a 50 meter sprint. The writer goes into great detail and examines in-depth research in this model. Bibliography lists 14 sources. Running.wps

Muscle Strain / Causes, Prevention & Treatment : A 10 page analysis of the causes of muscle strain, prevention and treatment. The writer presents this information by analyzing current medical literature on the subject and compares the causes, prevention methods and treatments for professional athletes vs. non-athletes. The paper includes two appendices, incorporating five tables of research results and drugs used to treat muscle strain in the U.S. and Canada. Bibliography lists 14 sources. Msclstrn.wps

Exercise & Anxiety : An 8 page research paper exploring the relationship between exercise and anxiety. The writer begins by offering operational definitions, the results of a literature search and concludes with a summary and recommendations for further research. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Exercise.wps

The Kinesiology Of Bowling : A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the kinesiology of bowling, including a look at the sagittal view, extension, flexing, eccentric and concentric movements, and the relationship between the bones and muscles during the game. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Bowling2.doc

Exercise-Induced Asthma : A 6 page paper on the causes of asthma and its relationship to exercise. Main focus is on yourth sports in schools. Subjects covered include: medications, alternative treatments (warm-ups, masks/scarves, swimming for cardiovascular and strength training, relaxation), and what school coaches and parents in combination can do to help young athletes. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Exasthma.wps

Oxytocin : A 6 page research paper describing the purposes and effects of oxytocin. Oxytocin is one of two hormones produced in the hypothalamus and released by the pituatary glands. It is called the "touch hormone" because it has been found to be associated with the bonding that occurs between mother and child. Studies using this hormone in inducing labor are reported. Bibliography is included. Oxytocin.wps

Women's Basketball Injuries / Damage to The Anterior Cruciate Ligament :
This 12 page, comprehensive research paper examines common basketball injuries, preventive techniques, and which groups are more likely to suffer from them. At least 80% of the discussion focuses upon women's injuries and physiological factors causing the gender to suffer more frequently from damages to the anterior cruciate ligament specifically. Numerous studies are cited. Bibliography lists more than 20 sources. Sportinj.wps

*Many more relevant papers scattered throughout*
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ASTRONOMY &
ASTRONOMERS

Astrology & Astronomy : A 7 page historical survey of the bond of Astrology and Astronomy and how as the result of the scientific method that bond was broken. And how both are still influencing us today. Lists four sources in bibliography Astroast rtf

Cosmogony / An Overview : A 12 page exploration of Astronomical Cosmology or Cosmogony, the branch of astrology and astrophysics which studies the origin of the universe. Includes an explanation of the Big Bang theory, the nature of light, gravity, the Doppler effect, dark matter, Olber's paradox, background radiation, the theory of relativity, and inflation. Bibliography lists nine sources. Cosmogon.wps

Cosmology : 5 pages in length. The concept of human beings understanding everything about their universe is preposterous and arrogant. We truly do not have any idea what has transpired, is occurring or will happen within the cosmos, even with the aid of scientific data. There are just some things that cannot be obtained merely for the asking. The writer delves into the deeper meaning behind the universe and discusses why mortals are not likely to be the ones who find out the secrets of the cosmos. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Cosmolgy.wps

History & Use of the Mayan Calendar : 8 pages in length. A thorough discussion of Native Indian (Mexico) rituals concerning the use of the sun and moon as instruments to determine calendar dates. The creation, carving, and shaping of actual Mayan calendars is discussed as is the culture's ancient numbering system - figures of dots and bars based on five. Annual calendar cycles and chronology are explained in great detail. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Mayancal.wps

Gravitation : An 8 page paper on the history of gravity as a known aspect of science. The writer describes the significance of the discovery of gravity using a historical overview. Kepler, Galileo, & Newton are among the many names discussed. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Gravity.wps

Primordial Black Holes : A good, 6 page overview of the phenomena of primordial black holes. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Blckhol.wps

Star Birth : A 5 page paper discussing how stars are born, dwarf stars, and a brief description of the life of a star. Also includes graphics of different phases of star birth. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Starbirth.wps

The Sun, The Planets & Our Solar System : A comprehensive 8 page research paper on the solar system. Included in the discussion are : a solar system's definition, the Sun's composition, properties of all nine known planets, man's efforts to explore the solar system, and more...All terms are defined and plenty of statistical information is included. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Solarsys.wps

Galaxies & What They Are / A Comprehensive Overview : A 5 page research paper on some of the available information about galaxies in general, including classification types, estimated numbers (more than 50 billion!), and some of the current research into the origins, nature and future of the Universe. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Galaxy.wps

Exploring the Milky Way Galaxy : 5 pages in length. A comprehensive research paper-- explaining our galaxy (The "Milky Way") in great detail. The writer describes the history of man's early exploration via telescope, the distance and brightness of stars, attempts to assess The Milky Way's age, problems with matter, and the size/relevance relationship between our own solar system and others. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Milkyway.wps

The Benefits of Space Exploration : A 7 page essay on some of the benefits realized through the efforts of the nation’s space programs. Critics maintain that the billions spent on space exploration would be better used in other ways, that there are no actual benefits realized aside from boosted egos. Topics the paper addresses include: ozone studies, medical advances of MRI and telemedicine, light touches on robotics, the cable TV industry and TeflonŽ, and their effect both on the nation’s people and on the national economy. FREE outline included. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Spaceex2.wps

The Hubble Space Telescope : A 5 page research paper which looks at the Hubble Space Telescope and the ramifications of some of its discoveries on the science of astronomy. The writer discusses what the Hubble has revealed about our own solar system and also the numerous paradoxes that the images from the Hubble have uncovered that may eventually revolutionize current scientific thinking. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Hubble.wps

The History Of Unmanned Space Flight : A 9 page paper that provides a history of unmanned space flight that has lead up to the Mars Pathfinder mission and the interrelationship of all of those missions to the eventual human habitation of another planets, namely, Mars. The quest for Mars was begun 40 years ago, and all of the space exploration to date, manned or unmanned, including discoveries about earth and the universe, have been made toward this purpose. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Unmanned.wps

The Space Shuttle Challenger & Basic Economic Issues : A 3 page essay reviewing the Challenger space shuttle accident and the amount of money spent of the space program. Considering the number of homeless and hungry in our country, the writer offers a proposal for a better use of the money spent on space shuttles. Bibliography provided. Chall.wps

The Challenger Disaster / A Study In Ethics : An 11 page case study examining the events and findings regarding a booster rocket design flaw in the space shuttle series of which Challenger was part. Roger Boisjoly was a red-flag-waving engineer who was regarded as the country’s leading expert in the area, yet his company, Morton Thiolkol, refused to listen to his concerns about the safety of the entire mission. Challenger exploded just after liftoff on January 28, 1986. Boisjoly began to formulate his theories fully one year before. One source cited. Cha.wps

Space Exploration Beyond The 1990's / Space Stations : This 7 page research paper looks at the future of U.S. space exploration in light of its somewhat turbulent past. Specifically examined is a proposal to build a space station which will conduct extensive research for the benefit of mankind. The role of NASA, relevant political controversy, and financial obstacles to building such a station are discussed. Growing environmental problems caused by space debris are of particular importance to this discussion. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Spaceexp.wps

The Infrared Space Observatory : This 10 page report on the European Space Agency’s Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) gives an overview of what the ISO’s investigations are revealing, why its observations are in demand, and how its discoveries are beginning to rewrite the textbooks on astronomy. Bibliography lists four sources. Infrared.wps

The Possibility Of Life On Mars : This 7 page paper reviews the vast amount of information scientists currently have about life on Mars and speculates on what else might be discovered. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Marslife.wps

The Rings of Saturn : A 5 page research paper exploring aspects of Saturn's Rings. Topics include hypotheses of composition of the rings, leakage from the rings, the latest ring found, and what scientists hope the Cassini will reveal. Bibliography included. Satring.wps

Active Volcanoes On The Planet Venus : A 2 page paper on findings from the early 1990's which show a number of geologic activities on the Earth's "twin" planet Venus,-- including live volcanoes and dramatic faulting. It is concluded that while the "case" of active volcanoes on Venus has not yet been entirely settled, there is indeed plenty of room for future research. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Venusact.wps

Sun Spots & Scientific Controversy : A 5 page definitonal overview of what sun spots are, how they are formed, etc; The writer is particularly concerned with what sun spots say about the future..Some scientists have initiated great controversy by bringing up issues concerning their potentially harmful effects-- even the suggestion that sunspots are indicative of another Ice Age ! Research is analyzed and it is concluded that while it seems as though scientists do have strong reason to believe that sun spots have a significant correlation to weather and the environment, they can not yet agree with certainty upon what implications they might have for our future. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Sunspots.wps

Supernovas -- Stars On Their Death Bed : This 6 page research paper describes the phenomenon of supernova, their various types, and occurrences. Research concerning particular supernovas (1987a, 1993j, etc;) is presented and the specific processes as we understand them thus far are explained in great detail. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Supernov.wps

The Stars' Names & Greek Mythological Origin : 25 pages worth of extensively detailed discussion relevant to how the stars and constellations derived their names from Greek mythology/stories. Bibliography lists 11 sources. Greeksta.wps

"(The) First Reasonable Theory That Planets Exist in other Solar Systems" : A brief two page report on findings from 1992. 2 sources listed in bibliography. Good for those studying issues, events, and/or controversy within astronomy. Astreven.wps

The Mystery Of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) : The question of life existing beyond the confines of our own planet and the visitations that such beings might make to our world, is one that pre-dates the twentieth century. In this 10 page research paper, the writer explores the mystery of U.F.O.s, historical "sightings," government reports, and the ensuing controversy today. Statistics concerning the number of people who claim to have seen a UFO are cited and alternative explanations are provided. It is ultimately concluded that while flying saucers may very well exist, such can not yet be proven. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Ufos.wps

Argument/ The Roswell New Mexico UFO Crash Was A Government Cover-up :
A 5 page examination of the Roswell incident which involved government investigation of what is presumed to be a UFO crash. The writer examines the eye-witness testimony, reports about government documents, and press releases. It is argued and concluded that this crash was indeed a bonafide UFO and that fact has been intentionally suppressed by our government. Bibliography lists five sources. Roswell.wps

(The) Apollo Space Program : 13 pages on the Apollo Space Program; Its mission, success & failures etc; Specifically covered are Apollo I, VIII, IX, & XIII. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Apollosp.wps

Neil Armstrong : A 6 page biography of astronaut Neil Armstrong-- most commonly known as the first man to walk on the moon. Bibliography lists 10 sources.Armstron.wps

Astronaut Sally Ride -- First American Woman In Space : A 5 page overview of the life & contributions of astronaut Sally Ride, the first American woman in space. Ride's work in the field, space missions and scientific research are discussed. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Sallyrid.wps

Yuri Gagarin : A 10 page research paper outlining the life of Yuri Gagarin. The writer describes the life of Yuri Gagarin, first human in space (Russian), traces his historic space flight and his life following that event. Bibliography lists 7 references. Yurigagi.wps

Johannes Kepler / German Astronomer : An 11 page look at the life, works, & contributions of German astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) who (among other things)-- studied ellipses and created the self-named "Kepler's Laws." The writer presents an excellent overview of numerous writings by Kepler and elaborates a detailed explanation of the laws he posited. A "working" (annotated) bibliography of approximately 8 sources is included and an extended reading list names 40 relevant sources. Kepler.wps

Tycho Brahe / Danish Astronomer : A 6 page research paper that traces the life and contributions of the famous Sixteenth Century Astronomer. Brahe's scientific works gained him recognition in his own time as well as a permanent place in history.   Bibliography lists 8 sources. Brahe.wps

Galileo Galelei and the Heliocentric Model : 10 pages in length. A discussion of the life and works of Galileo and the religious controversy that surrounded his heliocentric model. Galileo was among the first to suggest that the planets revolved around the sun and not around the Earth. The specific reason and issues surrounding his condemnation are examined. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Galile2.wps

Galileo Galilei - His Impact On Our Lives Today : A 7 page paper on the Renaissance mathematician, scientist and inventor which examines his legacy to us as we live in a modern world influenced by the scientific perspectives and methods he espoused during his life. Current applications of discoveries, inventions, and philosophy of science pioneered by Galileo in a wider variety of fields are discussed. Bibliography list 17 Sources. Galpap.wps

Turmoil Created By The Heliocentric Theory : A 9 page history of the turmoil created by the revelation of the heliocentric theory by Copernicus, Keppler and Galileo in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Bibliography lists nine sources. Earthmov.wps

Carl Sagan’s "The Demon-Haunted World -- Science As A Candle In The Dark" :
A 5 page paper in which the writer provides an overview of Sagan's book. Demon-Haunted World challenges many of theories formed from developments in science and technology regarding space travel and the presence of life from other worlds. The paper contends that Sagan's challenging of current scientific myths supports his theory that increases in science and technology have developed into a social focus. No additional sources cited. Carls.wps

Zubrin & Wagner / The Case for Mars -- Settling the Red Planet : A 5 page paper that provides an overview of Zubrin & Wagner's book which examines the importance of Mars exploration. The writer demonstrates the applicability of their work in science and technology and demonstrates why it is important to the overall efficacy of the space program. Zubrin.wps

Satellite Communications : A 12 page paper that provides an overview of the development of satellite communications since Sputnik. The writer also outlines the issues and international impacts of this type of technology. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Commsati.wps

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BIOLOGY

(*Includes all kinds-- Social Biology Too!)

Are Pesticides More Dangerous To Reproduction When Found in Pairs? :
A 4 page critique of an article reporting a possible synergistic effect of certain chemicals on mammalian reproduction. Bibliography lists two sources. Bioa.wps

Human Fertilization & Reproduction / What Happens At The Cellular Level ? :
A 9 page explorationof the biological mechanisms involved in reproduction and fertilization. Emphasis is on the human reproductive system and fertilization of the human ova. Bibliography lists five sources. Humfert.wps

Polychlorinated Biphenyls / Effects on Reproduction : A 12 page overview of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their adverse impact on the reproduction of both humans and other animals. Bibliography lists 14 sources. Pcb.wps

Schwann Cells / Their Function & Relationship to Axon Cells : An 8 page overview of Schwann cells and their relationship to axons. Illustrates that Schwann cells are supportive in nature to the neural axons and that each is critical in the passage of information between cells. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Schwannc.wps

The Structure Of Muscle Tissue In Red Vs. White Meat : A 6 page examination of the differences between red and white meat. Emphasizes differences in muscular structure and in the relative presence of iron. Discusses striated and smooth muscle tissue as well as myoglobin and its function in the physiology of animals particularly in the supply and transport of oxygen. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Musclea.wps

The Borna Virus / Its Link to Depression in Humans : A 9 page discussion of the Borna virus, an infectuous agent which attacks the central nervous system, and its link to depression and other psychiatric disorders in humans. Presents the most current research on the virus and concludes that, although it is highly probable, no definative proof yet exists which definitively incriminates Borna in human psychiatric disorders. Bornaviru.wps

Catalase -- The Enzyme : A 6 page overview of the enzyme catalase, its function in both the living organism and as an isolated form in commercial applications. Bibliography lists four sources. Catalese.wps

Prions / An Informative Overview : A 5 page examination of the proteanaceous infectious particles which are responsible for the degeneration of brain cells. Concentrates on the replication of these proteins which, unlike living organisms, reproduce in the absence of any genetic material. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Prions.wps

Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis : A 5 page overview of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, its life cycle and its effect on horses. Bibliography lists five sources.Eqenceph.wps

Aviadenovirus : A 5 page overview of the adenoviruses with a particular emphasis on research concerning aviadenovirus, the adenovirus which infects domestic chickens, ducks, turkey, quail and other species of fowl. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Aviad.wps

Escherischia coli : A 5 page paper discussing the biology and effects of E. coli. Bibliography lists three sources. Ecoli.wps

Salmonella : A 5 page discussion of the bacteria found under the genus Salmonella. Includes information on their biology, their method of attack, symptoms and ways to prevent infection. Bibliography lists three sources. Salmone.wps

The Genus Chlamydia / Emphasis On Chlamydia Trachomatis : A five page overview of the Chlamydia genus of bacteria with a particular emphasis on Chlamydia trachomatis the organism which is responsible for nongonococcal urethritis, a common sexually transmitted disease. Bibliography lists four sources. Chlamy.wps

Seahorses / With Particular Emphasis On Hippocampus ingens : A 5 page look at seahorse biology and impacts to their population such as the aquarium and pharmaceutical trades. Includes a particular emphasis on Hippocampus ingens. Bibliography lists twelve sources. Seahorse.wps

Streptococcus mutans / An Overview : A 5 page overview of the polysaccharide-producing, ondopathogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans. Includes information regarding its involvement in the formation of dental cavities. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Strepto.wps

Contribution of Legionella pneumophilia’s Natural Environment to its Pathogenesis Ability :
A 6 page paper discussing the manner in which this organism’s method of survival in nature contributes to its pathogenicity. L. pneumophilia is absolutely an aerobic bacterium. It favors the environment of water where there is the presence also of metal, such as water holding tanks, commercial cooling systems and shower heads, which ultimately could be important in determining its control through methods other than those currently available. An intracellular organism, it is highly adaptable to rapidly changing environmental conditions and shows the greatest affinity for those human cells that most closely match its preferred natural environment. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Patho.wps

Determining Listeria monocytogenes Kill Curves : A 5 page paper describing an experiment designed to result in kill curves for Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice when treated with heat. L. monocytogenes is a relatively rare but potentially deadly food-borne contaminant and is resistant not only to heat, acidity and salt treatment but also is known to thrive at low temperatures that indicate that even refrigeration is not an effective deterrent to its growth. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Listeria.wps

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Genetic Defects and Epithelial Uptake : An 8 page paper discussing the inability of genetically defective P. aeruginosa to successfully invade epithelial cells. A disturbing development of recent years is that many of the old standby antibiotics are no longer having sufficient effect on the old standby bacteria on which they have been used for years for effective control of disease. Genetic mapping of some of the most common disease-causing organisms, however, has led to the ability to genetically alter many disease organisms to the point that their potential virulence is affected. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Pseudo.wps

Superantigens in Disease : A 6 page paper discussing the mechanisms through which superantigens operate. Antigens and superantigens are protein substances produced by viruses and bacteria that trigger the body’s immune system into action. That immune system can degrade most antigens without bringing harm to healthy tissue, but the superantigen is the microbial antigen that is of particularly strong effect. Research has shown that those same mechanisms can be manipulated for the benefit of the individual undergoing procedures such as chemotherapy or victims of autoimmune deficiencies, creating the possibility of a therapeutic strategy from a formerly fully negative occurrence. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Supera.wps

The Bubonic Plague & The Organism Which Causes It / Yersinia Pestis :
A 16 page examination of the bubonic plague, its causative agent and its various forms. Includes information on vectors, treatment, and morphology. Bibliography includes fifteen sources. Bubonorg.wps

Disease - Causing Parasite / Leishmania Donovani : Leishmani Donovani is a parasite carried by flies and known to have wiped out nearly 70% of the population in one region of the Southern Sudan from the late 1980's through the early 1990's. Issues concerning geographic spreading of the parasite & its disease course/symptoms, variations of Leishmania Donovani, etc; -- are examined in this 9 page report. Bibliography lists 9 scholarly sources-- predominately from medical journals. Leishman.wps

Disease - Causing Parasite / Onchocerca Volvulus : 8 pages in length. A detailed discussion of Onchocerca Volvulus, a parasitic worm known to cause "river blindness" and death in certain regions of Africa. The condition caused by this parasite is specifically known as onchocerciasis-- and in this report its range, frequency, symptoms, epidemiology, effects, and clinical diagnosis are examined closely. Projects being undertaken to control the problem are also discussed. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Onchocer.wps

Ebola Hemorrhagic Virus : A 10 page overview of Ebola, its history and its manifestations. Bibliography lists seven sources. Ebolavir.wps

Mad Cow Disease : A 5 page paper that describes the origins and development of bovine spongiform encephalopathy or mad cow disease. This paper provides an overview of the disease and also considers its impact on the development of CJD in humans. Both are related to the epidemic in England in the early 1990s. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Madcow.wps

Escherichia Coli - O157:H7 : A 9 page paper discussing causes, incidence, treatment and prevention of infection caused by E. coli O157:H7. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Ecoli.doc

Liver Histopathology / An Overview : A 5 page overview of normal and abnormal liver function and the determinants of the latter. Emphasizes the effects of alcohol on a liver and describes the effects of cirrhosis of the liver. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Livero.wps

BRCA1 / The Genetic Precursor to Breast and Ovarian Cancer : A 7 page overview of the gene BRCA1 and its potential links to breast and ovarian cancer. Bibliography lists 20 sources. Brstgene.wps

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Anthrax, and Brucellosis : A 10 page overview of three potentially fatal diseases. Includes their effects on cattle and man as well as discussions on possible treatment methodologies and preventions. Outlines research efforts to develop vaccines and gives an overview of the different types of legislation which has evolved in response to the threat of these and other diseases. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Cowmad.wps

Cow Ticks : 8 pages in length. An in-depth discussion of the problem of cow ticks and their biological manifestation. Social, health, and economic implications are explored against a scientific background. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Cowticks.wps

An Overview Of Biological Warfare / Descriptions Of Anthrax & Ebola : A 7 page discussion of biological warfare and an overview of ebola and anthrax (mad cow disease), two bacteria commonly used in biological warfare. Bibliography lists ten sources. Biowar.wps

Evolution / Plant & Animal : A 5 page overview of the evolution of plants and animals. Compares and contrasts the evolutionary paths of the first plant and the first animal and traces those paths back to the primordial soup from which that very first organism emerged. Discusses differences in anaerobic and aerobic organisms and details the evolution of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Planimal.wps

Mesozoic Evolution of Mammals : A 7 page overview of the differing morphological characteristics which arose during the Mesozoic Era and separated the mammals from their predecessors the reptiles. Discusses differences in the inner ear, the jaw, and the brain and provides possible reasons for the divergent evolutionary paths. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Evolmeso.wps

Mammalian Reproductive Systems/ Phylogenetic & Ontogenetic Development :
An 8 page paper discussing the concept of ontogeny in relation to the human reproductive system. Dispells the belief propagated in the ninetenth century that the embryonic stages of development are an exact mirror of the evolutionary history of an organism. Bibliography lists seven sources. Mammal.wps

The Human Digestive System / Its Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Development :
A 7 page exploration of the concepts of phylogeny and ontongeny in relation to the digesive system. Discusses the embryonic development of the digestive system and points out that, although it is possible that certain phases of our evolution are reflected in our embryonic development, this reflection is sporadic and quite different from the view held in the nineteenth century that an organism's embryological developmental phases give a clear picture of its evolutionary history. Bibliography lists five sources. Humandig.wps

The Role Of Mossy Fibers In Memory : A 7 page paper outlining the role of mossy fibers in information transmittal and in memory. Provides specific information about ultrastructural changes which can occur as a result of stress or of exposure to chemicals. Bibliography lists 15 sources. Mossyf.wps

The Process Of Osmosis : A 6 page overview of osmosis in the living organism and in industrial applications such as desalination, sewage treatment, and groundwater treatment. The term osmosis is used to denote the process by which liquids move through a semipermeable membrane. Bibliography lists five sources. Osmosis.wps

Human Growth Hormones, Creatine Monohydrate, & Steroids: A 10 page examination of steroids, nutritional supplements and other means used by athletes to enhance physical prowess. Bibliography lists fifteen sources. Creatini.wps

The Human Body, Chemistry, & Steroids : Written mostly from a scientific perspective, this 7 page paper discusses the chemistry of steroids, bio-physiological implications, and more. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Steroid3.wps

The Evolution of Lungs / From Fish to Mammal : A 7 page paper outlining the evolution of the lung from the primitive lungfishes to mankind. Bibliography lists six sources. Lungs.wps

The Evolution of Mammallian Ear Bone Structure : A 7 page outline of the characteristics mammals have in common with their predecessors the reptiles and the features which distinguish them. Bibliography lists five sources. Earbone.wps

Oxytocin : A 6 page research paper describing the purposes and effects of oxytocin. Oxytocin is one of two hormones produced in the hypothalamus and released by the pituatary glands. It is called the "touch hormone" because it has been found to be associated with the bonding that occurs between mother and child. Studies using this hormone in inducing labor are reported. Bibliography is included. Oxytocin.wps

Altruism & Proving The Theory of Kin Selection : A 4 page analytical examination of animal / insect altruism and the theory of kin selection first presented in the 1960's by Dr. W. Hamilton. The writer evidences the validity of kin selection through a discussion of honeybees, spadefoot tadpoles, etc; Good case examples are provided and excellent biological reference is included. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Kinselec.wps

Prey-Size Selection : An 8 page research paper on prey-size selection as it relates to spiders. A number of relevant concepts are examined including : aggressive mimicry, pirate spiders vs. web-invading araneophagic spiders, the role of mimetids, and more. Bibliography lists approximately 20 sources. Preysize.wps

Insect Adaptations, Disease, and Control : A 10 page overview of the insects, their benefits and adverse impacts to humans. Emphasis is placed on their status as disease vectors. Bibliography lists five sources. Insectad.wps

Insects As Intelligent Animals With The Ability to Learn : A 10 page paper describing the intelligence and learning capabilities of insects. Emphasis is put on social insects. Studies are described that support the statements of an insect’s abilities. The main insect in focus is the ant as it is the most thoroughly studied. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Insects.wps

Rodents / Life History and Control : An 11 page overview of the order Rodentia with particular emphasis on their role in disease transmission and the consequent need for control. Discusses pesticides and the need for alternative management measures which have fewer adverse impacts to non-targeted species. Bibliography included. Rodentia.wps

Retrospective & Perspective Memory In Rats : A 10 page examination of the phenomena of memory and how it is evidenced in rats. Emphasizes the role experimental design can have on the results and conclusions of an experiment. Bibliography lists 22 sources. Memorat.wps

Biological Determinism / Our Actions Are Determined by Biology : A 17 page discussion of the role of genetics in determining behavior. Emphasizes that our actions and behaviors are essentially an interplay of genetics and societal factors but acknowledges that the genetic predisposition for certain behaviors is definite and difficult to overcome. Relies extensively on the ideas presented in Richard Dawkin’s The Selfish Gene but backs these ideas up with actual research examples. Uses the counter examples of research indicating that homosexuality is a genetic condition and that research which shows that gender roles are shaped by the environment. Bibliography lists 16 sources. Biodeter.wps

Biology & Behavior / Nature vs. Nurture : 9 pages on biologically determined behaviors and the nature vs. nurture controversy. Writer finds that many of our more common behaviors do indeed find their roots in biology. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Biolbeha.wps

The Nature vs. Nurture Controversy : A good 6 page analysis of the nature vs. nurture controversy regarding factors that contribute most strongly to human development. The writer assesses both sides of the issue, explains its relevance to sociology & sociobiology, and determines that the development of a personality and the characteristics of that personality actually depend upon a combination of biological and social factors. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Naturenu.wps

Nature vs. Nurture / Article Discussion : This debate is presented in a 1997 New York Times article that proposes two diametric sides on the issue of brain development. A 5 page critical analysis explores assumptions made in the article. Pros and cons are shown on each side. While no side is taken, the analysis suggests that political correctness may play a role in the debate. No other sources used. Nnurt.wps

Natural Selection : A 5 page overview and analysis of Darwin’s proposal of the theory of natural selection. Presents the proposition that the theory of natural selection had actually been around well before Darwin’s publication of Origin of the Species. Presents the view that the theory of natural selection is, in essence, a selfishness on the part of an organism to reproduce. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Natsel.wps

Is Creationism a Science ? -- Yes ! : A comprehensive, 6 page discussion of whether or not creationism is truly a science. The author believes that it is in fact, a science and defines many relevant terms. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Keywords: biology, evolution, social science. Creatism.wps

Is Creationism a Science? -- No ! : An 8 page research paper examining whether or not creationism is truly a bonafide science. The writer describes the main theories of Creation-science and illustrates through argument that it does not meet the criteria to be a science. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Creation2.wps

Theories of Creationism : This 8 page paper delves into the controversies not only surrounding the debate between creationism and evolution but arguments within the realm of creationism itself. Include are interpretations such as progressive creationism, catastrophism, scientific creationism and the gap theory. The premise that the majority of people in America believe in pure creationism is supported by several arguments. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Creatheo.wps

Evolution vs. Creationism : A 10 page research paper discussing Evolution vs. Creation. Topics explored include: reaction of 19th century theologians and clergy to Darwin's theories, court cases resulting from teaching the theory of evolution, including the famous Scopes' Monkey Trial, the current acceptance level of evolution. Bibliography includes 10 references. Darwin.wps

Charles Darwin / His Life and Contributions : A 5 page exploration of Darwin and his theory of evolution. Bibliography lists four sources. Cdarwin.wps

"The Moral Animal" & Biological Determinism : A 10 page review of "The Moral Animal" by Robert Wright. Concentrates on Wright’s use of Charles Darwin himself as an example of the theory of evolutionary psychology, natural selection, and biological predeterminism. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Moralan.wps

Human Behavior / A Result of Genetic Make-up & Environmental Influences :
An 11 page paper discussing human behavior and their origins. Some believe that human behavior is merely due to biological make-up where others firmly believe it is environmental conditioning. There is much evidence that points to both biology and environment playing a role in thedevelopment of human behavior. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Makeup.wps

Homo Erectus : A 5 page research paper on Homo Erectus -- an early evolutionary version of human originally believed to have started in Africa, and now in Asia. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Homoerec.wps

The Bubonic Plague and the Organism Which Causes It: Yersinia pestis :
A 16 page examination of the bubonic plague, its causative agent and its various forms. Includes information on vectors, treatment, and morphology. Bibliography includes fifteen sources. Bubonorg.wps

Hornets / A Sub-species of Social Wasps : A detailed, 5 page overview of hornets in which the writer analyzes the species from a biological perspective. Reproduction, hibernation, metabolism, and pursuit of prey are some of the many items explored. Bibliography lists 2+ sources. Hornet.wps

Hornets / A General Overview : A 3 page overview, covering items similar to "Hornets : A Sub-species of Social Wasps" (hornet.wps)- only with lesser attention to detail and no bibliography. Hornets.wps

The Effects of Hormones on Plants : An 8-page research paper which discusses plant growth, plant hormones, as well as provides the findings of research studies on how hormones effect plant growth. Includes a discussion of two or more hormones in detail. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Planhorm.wps

The Effects of Pollution on Plants : An 8-page research paper about the effects of sulfur dioxide on plants in a variety of locales. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Pollplan.wps

Bacterial Interactions With Plants : An 8 page overview of the effects and interactions of bacteria on plants. Emphasizes that plants are dependent on some of these interactions but are adversely impacted by others. Includes commercial and non-commercial impacts as well as a mention of efforts to commercially capitalize on the interactions of plants and bacteria by producing strains which benefit from the positive microbial interactions and are resistant to the less beneficial interactions. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Plantbac.wps

The American Alligator / Alligator Mississippiensis : A 5 page overview of the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Includes information on its evolutionary relationship to the crocodile, its reproductive strategy, habitat preferences, subsistence patterns and other behavior. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Alligat2.wps

Frog Muscles : In this 6 page essay, the author examines several factors inhibited and/or facilitating a frog's ability to jump using certain key muscles. Beginning with an introductory overview of amphibian/frog muscle structure, various idiosyncratic elements in the jump are explored. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Frogmusc.wps

Birds / The Mallard : A comprehensive 4 page report on the mallard, a bird from the Anatidae family of the order Anseriformes. Dynamics, geography, breeding, eating, and so forth ,-- are among the many aspects discussed. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Mallard.wps

A History Of The Science Of Biology : A 5 page overview of the major developments in the biological sciences beginning in 500 BC and continuing at approximately 500 year intervals up till the present. Outlines major players and obstacles. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Biohist.wps

(A) History of Biology : A general, 5 page overview of the history of biology. Discusses key developments and important discoveries. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Biolhist.wps

Bionomics / An Overview : A 7 page overview of the concept of bionomics and the relationships of economics and biology. Explains that economics and business in general are often organized much like a living ecosystem, a concept first discussed by Michael Rothschild. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Bionom.wps

Biology Lab / Observations of Fish Gill Movement : Approximately 4 pages in length. Paper reports on a basic (biology) laboratory experiment. Writer hypothesizes that fish gill movement will increase when water temperature does same. It is concluded that varying water temperature does have an effect on percular movements and breathing patterns of (gold)fish. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Fishlab.wps

Cell Biology / Article Reviews : Contains two reviews of articles relevant to cell biology- each one is 2 pages in length (4 pages total for this file) and contains the writer's own personal reaction. Citations are : Rowe, Paul M. (1994). Cell death according to plan. The Lancet, 344 (8925), 812 -&- Cohen, Jon. (1994). 'Long PCR leaps into larger DNA sequences.' Science, 263 (5153), 1564-1565. Biolarti.wps

Cell Biology / Essay Answers : 7 pages worth of responses to several very-detailed and comprehensive questions in cell biology. Please write to us for more information. No Bibliography. Biolexam.wps

Advanced Essays on Bioethics : 10 pages worth of complex essays in biology ethics such as one summarizing the biology of the HIV, and its manner of infection and production of disease. The writer describes the major ethical problems that face biologists and doctors regarding the manner in which they are dealing with the epidemic as well as their intelligent opinion about what is the most ethical and yet biologically effective way to deal with it and why. No Bibliography. Bioethic.wps

Nuclear Destruction -- The Threat of Irreversible and Irreparable Consequences :
A 5 page report examining the biological & ecological consequences of radiation contamination that would result from a nuclear war. 'The end of life as we know it' is documented with scientific findings about radiation's effects on living cells and genetic structure. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Nukedest.wps

Techno-Terrorism / Implications of the Utilization of Biological Agents & Other High-tech Approaches in Terrorism : A 10 page exploration of techno-terrorism. Provides information of biological warfare, chemical warfare, and cyber terrorism as well as on the potential uses of nanotechnology and robotics in terroristic activities. Bibliography lists 14 sources. Techterr.wps

Watson, Crick,& The Significance of the Double Helix : The discovery of DNA was one of the most important scientific contributions ever. In the 1950's, the discovery of the Double Helix significantly complimented our knowledge of DNA and changed the way we viewed its structure. This 15 page science history paper examines the years leading up to Watson & Crick's great discovery and the findings that came before it. Also discussed are the biographies of each of these two great scientists and the practical implications that their work has since had (i.e., helping to create a standard for criminologists, etc;). Bibliography lists 10 sources. Doubheli.wps

DNA - An Overview : A 5 page exploration of DNA and its relations to cellular reproduction. Includes a discussion of cellular structure, mitosis, and meiosis. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Dna.wps

Social Biology Of Wolves : A 25 page research paper on wolves, their social biology, etc; The writer discusses various types of wolves, how they travel in packs, survive as predators, and so froth. Canis Lupis (Common wolf), gray wolves, and red wolves are among the many types discussed. The writer is also concerned with the evolutionary biology of wolves and other relevant issues. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Wolves.wps

Zebra Mussels / Biological & Ecological Issues : This 7 page research paper describes the arrival of zebra mussels on the North American continent as well as some projected figures for their spread. The writer describes the biology of these small, inedible shell fish and then explains some of the negative effects they can have on aquatic systems. Since phytoplankton and detritus consumed by tiny animals called zooplankton which in turn are eaten by small fish and these small fish by larger fish, biologists seem concerned that zebra mussels' tendency to eat the same items could damage established food chains by removing needed energy from its bottom level. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Zebramus.wps

Jerome Kagen : A 5 page paper that presents the arguments surrounding Kagen's statement that adolescence "begins in biology and ends in culture." Kagen's comment appears to be in response to the division among theorists in regards to the primary causative factor in adolescent behavior--some, including Gesell, believe that it is biology, while Karen Horney supported the belief in the cultural influences. Kagen's statement supports a progression that allows for the effects of both. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Kagen.wps

Science, The Bell Curve, & Racism : A 14 page paper that presents the theory that science has been readily utilized as a means for promoting racism. This paper considers the impact of scientific findings in regards to ethnicity and the impact that these have on racism, especially in the United States. The Bell Curve is one example of recent racially-based scientific findings that have been challenged because of their jaded methodology. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Science.wps

*Also Be Sure To Check Out Our Medicine / Medical Ethics Department For More Related Papers!

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CHEMISTRY

John Dalton (1766-1844) : This 30 page paper celebrates the life of chemist John Dalton. Provided are various sections highlighting his accomplishments and includes a chronology of his life. An analysis is also included which looks at the scientist’s life in the perspective of the times in which he lived. Highlighted is the fact that he discovered the concept of color blindness and developed the atomic theory of matter. An annotated bibliography of the 4 most important sources is part of the paper as well. Bibliography lists 15 sources. Johndalt.wps

Alfred Nobel and The Invention Of Nitroglycerin : A 7 page paper that recounts the history and effects of Alfred Nobel's trials with nitroglycerin. Contrary to popular belief, Nobel did not invent nitroglycerin, but his invention of dynamite, its first usable form, was a significant breakthrough for the scientific community as well as industrialization. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Nobel.wps

Nitrogen Cycle : A 5 page essay that defines, analyzes the current situation and provides an overview of actual and potential solutions to the problems caused by the nitrogen glut. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Nitrocyc.wps

Aluminum : An 8 page research paper on aluminum. Explores the metal's history, properties, uses, and so forth. Useful for those studying chemistry and other sciences. Bibliography contains 4 references. Aluminu.wps

Asbestos : A 2 page paper detailing the composition of asbestos, health consequences that are related to its exposure, a history of its use, and problems with measuring asbestos levels. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Abestos.wps

Cadmium In The Environment : A 10 page paper discussing the effects of environmental cadmium. Cadmium is a naturally occurring element, a heavy metal found in conjunction with iron, zinc and copper ores. Once used heavily in electronics manufacturing and believed not to affect the water supply, research has discovered that cadmium does indeed leach through the soil, affecting both ground and surface water. It can be taken up by plants growing in contaminated soil and then ingested by humans. Cadmium is cumulative in its effects, and the dangers of long-term, low-level exposure include cancer, kidney disease and reproductive problems, and may also contribute to other physical conditions. Bibliography lists 32 sources. Cadmium.doc

RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme : A 10 page paper that considers the importance of the RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme in the process of gene regulation. This paper specifically looks at genetic transcription and the necessity of purification in the utilization of the enzyme in scientific processes. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Biochem.wps biochemistry

RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme Protocol For Purification : A 10 page paper that discusses the protocol for purifying the holoenzyme and demonstrates a procedure, outlined by Koleske, Chao and Young for the purification of the holoenzyme in yeast samples. In order to provide the greatest efficacy in the purification process, this paper also outlines the sampling suggestions promoted by Koleske, Chao and Young. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Poly.wps biochemistry

Pyruvate Decarboxylase / Industrial and Medical Applications : A 10 page overview of the enzyme and its functions. Emphasizes its use in the production of ethanol and the role it plays in the production of vitamin B1. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Pyruvate.wps

Polymers for Use in Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Systems : A 15 page paper discussing the role of polymers in controlled-release drug delivery systems. Includes six illustrations and graphs. Bibliography includes eight sources. Polymers.wps

Lithium-Polymer Batteries : A 10 page discussion of lithium polymer batteries. Includes a brief history of batteries, and overview of types, lithium batteries, and the role of polymers in lithium batteries. Bibliography lists twenty sources. Polymer.wps

The Chemistry Of Synthetic Rubbers : A 3 page look at the chemical composition of synthetic rubbers and how they are used in industry today. Specific properties unique to these rubbers are discussed as are monomers, polymer chains, and more. Several types of this rubber are explained. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Syntrub.wps

Mercury / The History, Use & Effects On Seafood : A 6 page paper that provides a comprehensive overview of the impacts of mercury and relates elements like the industrial and consumer use as well as the toxicology reports about mercury levels in seafood. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Mercury.wps

MuD Bacteriophage & Operon in Gene Fusion : 10 page paper. Despite the fact that gene fusion has been with us for years, there is still significant opposition in the popular press to "genetic engineering." Myriad agents are used to accomplish delivery of genetic factors to specific gene sites, many of which are written of extensively in the literature. One that is not written of quite as much as the others is the MuD bacteriophage. Despite all the work that has been done in gene fusion and gene mapping, the ultimate foreseeable value lies not in science-fiction tales of cloning, but rather in understanding some of the diseases with which gene fusion could be either alleviated or cured. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Mudphage.wps

Clay : A 9 page examination of the industrial mineral - clay. Paper explores its chemical and physical properties, origin, and industrial uses. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Clay.wps

Dioxin / The Seveso Italy Accident : A 5 page overview of the problems associated with dioxin contamination as based on studies of the well-documented 1976 explosion of a chlorine manufacturing plant in Seveso Italy. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Dioxin.wps

Oxytocin : A 6 page research paper describing the purposes and effects of oxytocin. Oxytocin is one of two hormones produced in the hypothalamus and released by the pituatary glands. It is called the "touch hormone" because it has been found to be associated with the bonding that occurs between mother and child. Studies using this hormone in inducing labor are reported. Bibliography is included. Oxytocin.wps

Saquinavir Mesylate : An 8 page discussion of protease inhibitors and their use in the fight against HIV infections. Emphasizes Saquinavir Mesylate, a drug released in 1995 by the Food and Drug Association. Bibliography lists eight sources. Saquin.wps

GHB (gamma hydroxy butyrate) / Beyond The Media Hype : A 5 page rebuttal to refute media and FDA claims that GHB, the "date rape" drug is potentially dangerous. Bibliography lists four resources. Ghb.wps

Generic Verses Brand Name / Which Is The Best Anticoagulant? : A 8 page comparison of the brand-name anticoagulant Coumadin and the generic equivalent warfarin sodium. Outlines research methodology recommended to discern differences in the two drugs and provides information obtained both through a review of the literature and through oral interviews. Concludes that at present the brand-name Coumadin would appear to be the safer choice. Bibliography lists two sources. Anticoag.wps

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria / A Medical Waste Landfill : A 5 page overview of existence of and the dangers presented by antibiotic resistant bacteria. Includes specific information regarding persistent and resistant bacteria in the Tulalip medical waste landfill in Marysville, Washington. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Resisbac.wps

The Ozone Layer [Emphasis On Its Chemistry] : A well-researched 8 page essay in which the author discusses the ozone layer. The composition of the ozone, the harmfulness, and possible benefits are discussed. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Ozonel.wps

"Chlorofluorocarbons & The Depletion Of Stratospheric Ozone" / Article Review : A 4 page summary of the contents of this scientific article which discusses the contribution of chlorofluorocarbons to ozone depletion and global warming. No other sources are listed. CFC.wps

Islamic Alchemy : A 10 page research paper on the this early form of chemistry plus the mystical implications it held for its adherents as well as its influence on Western culture. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Alchemy.wps

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EARTH & PHYSICAL SCIENCES
(*Includes Geology, Mineralogy, etc;)

Mineralogy & The Peabody Museum Collection : A 5 page overview of mineralogy, the branch of science dealing with minerals in the Earth's crust and also those found outside the Earth (such as in lunar samples and meteorites). The writer focuses specifically upon a very important (and well-known) collection stored in the Peabody Museum at Yale University. That particular collection's history is discussed in light of mineralogy itself. Bibliography is missing. Mineralg.wps

Earth Science & The Environmental Scientist : 13 pages on the important relevance that earth science has to the environmental sciences. Numerous case examples are provided. Bibliography lists more than 20 comprehensive sources. Envirsci.wps

Plate Tectonics : A 7 page paper discussing the theory of plate tectonics. Citing the works of various key theorists, the write describes how exploring plate tectonics helps us to better understand the validity of Continental Drift. Bibliography lists five sources. Platet.wps

Earthquakes / A Comprehensive Discussion : A 9 page paper on earthquakes in which the writer explains their different classifications, the role of various seismic wave patterns & types, etc; Also discussed are causes, reasons for geographical distribution, and the effects of earthquakes at different proximities beginning with the meizoseismal area (most damaged region). A final section looks at some experimental and theoretical grounds for predicting earthquakes. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Quakes.wps

The Whittier Earthquake Of 1987 : In this 7 page essay, the writer uses the Whittier Narrows Quake to show how frighteningly unpredictable and random California's earthquakes have become. The writer discusses the occurrence of that particular quake, its socioeconomic devastation, and most importantly-- describes what "lessons" we should have learned from this random example of geologic terror. Comparisons are also made between the Whittier quake and the Loma Prieta quake of 1989. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Whittier.wps

Earthquakes in New Jersey : The possibility of earthquakes occurring in the New Jersey area is addressed in this 5 page paper. The history of quakes in the geographic location as well as a discussion on current seismologic theory is included. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Eqnj.wps

Earthquakes In New York : The possibility of a major earthquake occurring in the New York area is addressed in this 7 page paper. The history of quakes in the area as well as a discussion on fault lines existing in the state's region is examined. A general discussion on the ineffectiveness of current seismological equipment is also included. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Earthny.wps

The Possibility of A Major Earthquake in the New York City Area : A 3 page paper on the geology of the northeastern United States and the extremely serious -- although unlikely -- earthquake that could occur with respect to Cameron's Line (Bronx area), the prevalence red brownstone and red sandstone in the Palisades, and NYC's location a long a major tectonic plate. Specific locations for the possible earthquake and its resulting damage are described in considerable detail. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Quakesnj.wps

Advances In The Science & Technology Of Earthquake Prediction & Protection :
A 5 page paper discussing scientific advancements in the prediction of earthquakes and the means by which technology can assist in minimizing earthquake damage. Bibliography lists five sources. Quakepro.wps

Law Review / Avalanches & Liability : A 7 page research paper on avalanche predictions, postings, and cleanup in light of federal, state, and torte law. Also considered are contract, negligence and manslaughter. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Avalanc.wps

The Volcanoes Of Papua, New Guinea : This 11 page research paper examines the historical phenomena of volcano eruptions in Papua. The writer is particularly concerned with caldera eruptions, predictors, etc; Bibliography lists 7 sources. Papuav.wps

Human Habitation and Geological Disasters : A 10 page research paper on flood, earthquake, and volcano destruction of human civilizations. The writer details the causes of such disasters and famous instances including Vesuvius, Krakatoa, New Madrid, San Francisco, and the great Mississippi floods of 1993. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Volcano.wps

Origin and Physical Characteristics of the Basin & Range Province in the United States :
A 5 page paper that provides a concise overview of the origin and major geological characteristics of the Basin and Range Province of the United States, and considers the implications of this information for understanding the geological development in the region. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Province.wps

Carlsbad Caverns : A 6 page paper that presents an overview of the geological and geographical structure of Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico. This paper recognizes the fragile states of this natural wonder, and presents and overview of the impact of the human element on the natural mineral structures created within the caves. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Carlsbad.wps

Diamonds / Their Structure and Geologic Formation : A 5 page overview of the gemstone known as a diamond. Includes information on diamond structure and geologic formation, including its presence in kimberlite formations. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Diamond.wps

The Garnet / A Geological Overview : A 5 page review of the gem stone garnet. Includes information on its geology, associated species of minerals, and its processing. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Garnet.wps

Gemstone Enhancement : A 5 page overview of the technologies and methodologies involved in the artificial enhancement of gemstones. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Gemstone.wps

Population Dynamics Of Northern Ecosystems In Relation To Nutrient Application/ A Research Proposal : A 7 page examination factors which influence the ecological structure of northern ecosystems, one of which is nutrients such as those observed with the application of treated domestic wastewater. Outlines a proposal for evaluating the effects of nutrients on ecosystem dynamics. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Popdyn.wps

Physical Geography and Socio-Environmental Responsibility : A 14 page research on this science of global environmental change. The writer defines physical geography, presents an historical overview of it, and attempts to explain reasons for physical geography's neglect of certain relevant social issues concerning the environment. It is noted that this example represents a basic misunderstanding of the relationship between science and the philosophy of science. Contemporary perspectives and a look at the future direction of physical geography are provided as well. Bibliography lists 11 sources. Physgeog.wps

The Hoover Dam : This 10 page paper provides an overview of the Hoover Dam, including its history, construction and present state. Also included is information on water power in general as well as environmental issues. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Hdam.rtf

Environmental Concerns Regarding Heap Leaching : A 5 page paper discussing the environmental concerns related to heap leach operations. What is the process of heap leaching and why is it used? Current issues surrounding the process are briefly examined. Bibliography lists five sources. Leach.wps

*Coastal/Beach Studies Papers in COASTAL TOPOGRAPHY (below) !

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ECOLOGY
*Please Goto Environmental Sciences/Ecology!

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GENETICS &
PALEONTOLOGY

MuD Bacteriophage & Operon in Gene Fusion : 10 page paper. Despite the fact that gene fusion has been with us for years, there is still significant opposition in the popular press to "genetic engineering." Myriad agents are used to accomplish delivery of genetic factors to specific gene sites, many of which are written of extensively in the literature. One that is not written of quite as much as the others is the MuD bacteriophage. Despite all the work that has been done in gene fusion and gene mapping, the ultimate foreseeable value lies not in science-fiction tales of cloning, but rather in understanding some of the diseases with which gene fusion could be either alleviated or cured. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Mudphage.wps

Genetic Expression in Cancer : A 12 page paper discussing the actions and implications of genes p53 and pRB, and the enzyme telomerase in the control of cancer. Genes p53 and pRB are known to be tumor suppressor genes, inhibiting the ability of cancerous cells to thrive. Over half of all cancers reveal that the p53 gene has either been disabled or has been dismantled at the cellular level. Telomerase is an enzyme found most abundantly in association with cancerous conditions, preventing the shortening of chromosomal "endcaps," telomeres, that happens in normal cell growth and division. The enzyme prevents the shortening of the telomeres, prolonging the life of the cell. Telomerase provides the best indicator of cancerous conditions present and is measurable before there are any symptoms at all. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Gexpress.wps

Is There a Cancer Gene ? : 7 pages in length. A comprehensive, analytical review of scientific literature positing that cancer probability may be passed down genetically. Writer summarizes existing research and provides some personal opinion. 4 sources listed in bibliography. Cancerar.wps

An Argument Against Involuntary Sterilization : A thorough 12 page analysis of the "pros" and "cons" of involuntary sterilization in which the writer argues against such a crude form of control. Various examples of biased race-engineering and incomprehensible experimentation are given to illustrate points made. Politics and various cultures are explored as well. Bibliography lists 5+ sources. Invoster.wps

The World’s First Test Tube Baby : A 7 page paper on the test tube baby and how the project has since contributed to the modern science of cloning and DNA technology. The paper discusses the various methods for in vitro fertilization and how this has led to the development of life-saving medicines and the recent birth of the Kansas City septuplets. The paper also discusses some of the ethical objections. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Testube.wps

Embryonic Research, Genetic Engineering, & Cloning : A 8 page exploration of the controversy of embryonic research as it pertains to genetic engineering and cloning. Presents both positive and negative aspects of the practice and concludes that we need to determine definition of such terms as "desirable" and "undesirable" and decide how these definitions fit into our own ethics and morals. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Embclone.wps

Cloning : 6 pages. The author discusses the cloning of humans and the possible effects which could occur, if humans were cloned. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Clissu.wps

To Clone or Not to Clone ? A Look at Biotechnology : This 5 page report briefly examines some of the controversies raised on the subject of cloning. The body of evidence reported and the practical application of scientific products supports the value of biotechnology, including cloning. Among the many reasons to support arguments in favor of cloning is the idea that DNA probe systems will revolutionize analysis of raw materials, ingredients, and finished products for the presence of pathogenic and spoilage organisms, bacterial and fungal toxins, chemical contaminants (i.e., herbicides, pesticides, heavy metals), and biological contaminants. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Clone.wps

The Ethical Downside of Cloning : A 10 page research paper on the negative aspects of human cloning. The writer details the eugenics movement and how it was used in the past by the Nazis and how it relates to current debates on human cloning. In addition, the paper shows the various possible uses and misuses of cloning. Bibliography lists 13 sources. Cloneno.wps

Propaganda For & Against Cloning : An 8 page paper discussing the propaganda used in both support and opposition to cloning. Two documents are reviewed and the elements of propaganda applied by both sides of the issue are discussed. Clonepro.wps

Social Concerns Of Genetic Cloning : A 5 page research paper on the scientific history, "Dolly" technology, and present-day social issues surrounding cloning. The writer presents a quoted "Dolly" technology synopsis, with equal attention given to discussion social issues in the form of specific comments by every day people, scientists, ethnicists, and government representatives. The paper proves that current opinion concerning cloning still resides in the realm of chaos--worldwide. The paper argues that ultimate responsibility to speak up on the issue is up to individuals. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Clone2.wps

The Ethical Controversy of Cloning : A 4 page paper looking at the very controversial topic of cloning a human being from a theological and social standpoint. The paper concludes that the issue is really not one of ethics at all, but of theology, having to do with the nature of the human soul. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Ethclo.wps

Sociobiological Aspects Of Cloning : A 4 page paper on the the application of social Darwinism and later studies to the new cloning process. Points of discussion include fitness of the species, ability to reproduce, and the replication of disease. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Clonebio.wps

Genetic Drift / Quick Change, Quicker Reversal : A 10 page paper that argues in support of science's use of genetic drift over natural selection to make quicker shifts in genetically drifted and naturally selected traits. The paper works from the viewpoint that genetic drift often leads to dominant gene traits and, therefore, extinction, whereas natural selection leads to environmental control by nature and seeks to provide examples throughout history where genetic drift has also resulted in a quicker change that natural selection. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Genetic.DOC

"Disclosure of Hereditary Illness : A Look At How Genetic Testing Is Raising New Legal and Bioethical Questions" : 19 pages in length. A thorough examination of issues concerning forced disclosure of genetic information and the right to privacy. Excellent for those studying genetics and/or medical ethics. Legal and ethical issues are mentioned. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Genetic.wps

DNA - An Overview : A 5 page exploration of DNA and its relations to cellular reproduction. Includes a discussion of cellular structure, mitosis, and meiosis. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Dna.wps

The Ethics Of The Genetics Revolution : A 4 page essay on the ethical considerations involved in applying genetic research. The writer details the idealistic and pragmatic considerations in treatment of genetic diseases, the testing for such diseases, and the potentially evil uses which can be made of the technology. No bibliography. Generev.wps

Eugenics and Disability -- Will History Repeat Itself ? : An 8 page paper on the controversy surrounding the genetic implications of the Human Genome Project. It discusses whether the ability to identify disabling conditions from DNA will ultimately hurt the disabled community by ushering in a new era of eugenics. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Eugenic.wps

Genetic Drift / Quick Change, Quicker Reversal : A 10 page paper that argues in support of science's use of genetic drift over natural selection to make quicker shifts in genetically drifted and naturally selected traits. The paper works from the viewpoint that genetic drift often leads to dominant gene traits and, therefore, extinction, whereas natural selection leads to environmental control by nature and seeks to provide examples throughout history where genetic drift has also resulted in a quicker change that natural selection. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Genetic.DOC

Gene Therapy : This 7 page paper explores gene therapy and its uses in combating terminal and genetic diseases. Bibliography included. Genti.wps

Genetic Mapping : A 5 page overview of the history of genetic mapping, its history and applications. Includes an explanation of the Human Genome Project. Bibliography lists four sources. Genemap.wps

Is Endometriosis Related To Genetics ? : Endometriosis is a common problem among women during their reproductive years. In this 3 page paper, the writer discusses the general characteristics of Endometriosis, its occurrence, symptoms, and relevant statistics. The writer looks at the difficulty medical practitioners face in teaching women how to prevent a condition of this nature and the possibility of there being some genetic foundation for it. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Endometr.wps

Is Homosexuality in the Genes ? : A 12 page paper in which the writer explores homosexuality from a biopyschosocial perspective. Explored are the definitive roots of homosexuality, changing psychiatric opinions over time, and most importantly,-- recent breakthroughs which suggest that people's sexuality may be the result of their genetic predisposition. Numerous examples and statistical data are provided. Bibliography lists 8+ sources. Homogene.wps

Homosexuality Is NOT Genetic / Argument : A 6 page argumentative paper supporting the theory that recent genetic findings cannot displace years of documented support for the behavioral determinants of sexual identification. The writer contends that the many discrepancies in the findings of Hamer and his colleagues leads scientists, sociologists and psychologists to continue to support the concept that homosexuality is determined through behavioral choices, not through genes. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Homosexu.wps

Genetics / Violence : A 7 page argumentative paper proving that violence is hereditary and unless stopped could lead to the demise of the human race. The writer relies on the original thesis and research of Darwin and Mendell, and bases arguments on the genetic discoveries of Han Brunner, et al. and subsequent modern-day researchers who proved how genes are mutated, have traced the regeneration of mutated genes, and have created violent species in laboratories based on the regeneration of mutated genes. Bibliography lists 11 sources. Geneviol.wps

Alzheimer's Disease / Genetic vs. Environmental : A 10 page paper that provides an overview of the two major arguments surrounding Alzheimer's disease and demonstrates increasing support for the genetic theory. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Alzheim.wps

Hypertension Is Genetic : A 5 page argumentative essay presents the thesis that the origin of hypertension is genetic rather than environmental. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Hyprtens.wps

Hair Loss / Genetics : A 5 page paper outlining the causes and potential cures for hair loss in men and women. Bibliography lists six sources. u

Genetic Engineering In Fruit / Benefits & Concerns Of Biomolecular Tomatoes :
A 14 page paper that provides an overview of recent information on the use of genetic engineering for improving the quality of fruit crops, especially tomatoes. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Botany.wps

Nazi History -- The Lebensborn & Eugenics : A 20 page research paper providing an overview of the laws pertaining to eugenics and the Lebensborn program of Nazi Germany. The writer centers on the program and the support mechanisms put into place to underscore the development of the Nazi master race in the late 1930s and early 1940s. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Nazifinl.rtf

Is Alcoholism a Genetic, Hereditary Disease ? - Yes ! : A 7 page research paper arguing quite strongly that alcoholism is, in fact, a hereditary disease linked to our genes. Using the findings of specific studies in books and journals, the writer debunks the myth that alcohol is a social disease and that the only familial influences are those related to peer pressure and modeling. Both sides of the argument are weighed, assessed, and the ultimately conclusion that alcoholism is hereditary-- is reached. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Alcohere.wps

Did Birds Evolve From Dinosaurs? : A 5 page outline of current paleontological thought regarding the evolutionary path of birds and the question of whether or not they descended from dinosaurs. Bibliography lists four sources. Dinobird.wps

The Science Of Determining Dinosaur Behavior : A 9 page paper outlining the methodology and tools used by paleontologist to gain an understanding of dinosaur behavior. Emphasizes computer modeling techniques. Bibliography lists five sources. Dinobeha.rtf

Mesozoic Evolution of Mammals : A 7 page overview of the differing morphological characteristics which arose during the Mesozoic Era and separated the mammals from their predecessors the reptiles. Discusses differences in the inner ear, the jaw, and the brain and provides possible reasons for the divergent evolutionary paths. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Evolmeso.wps

Climate & Geographic Change Between The Late Triassic & Jurassic Periods   :
A 7 page paper that discusses these changes in light of the disappearance of the dinosaur. The writer suggests that although this is still a mystery (unknowable fact), the geographic changes (tectonic plate theory, sea-floor theory) and climate changes from warm, moist climate to boreal at the end of the era
are believed to have contributed to the demise of the dinosaur. Dinosaur groups and extinction are also considered within these definitions. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Mesozoic.wps

Scientific Evaluation Of Michael Chrichton’s "Jurassic Park" : A 10 page study that looks at the efficacy of Crichton's use of science. It is argued that, generally, his scientific principles are accurate, and delineates between those that are applicable and those that are not. The paper provides a report on the current discussion on cloning, DNA and Chaos Theory from both a scientific viewpoint and from the viewpoints represented by Henry Wu (corporate), Ian Malcolm (chaos theory), and Alan Grant (embodiment of social protector). Bibliography lists 8 sources. Jurpark.wps

Michael Crichton's "The Lost World" : A 5 page analytical review of this contemporary author's sequel to "Jurassic Park"-- which illustrates a genetic experiment gone bad which warns mankind about our own emerging self-destructive powers. 3 additional sources are cited and listed in a bibliography. Dinobook.wps

The Selfish Gene / A Discussion of the First Two Chapters : A 5 page review of the concepts identified in Richard Dawkins' book The Selfish Gene. Emphasizes the role of the human body as a machine designed exclusively for the perpetuation of the genes. No sources are listed. Selfish.doc

The Myth of Frankenstein : More focused upon scientific issue than upon the classic sci-fi novel, this 4 page research paper refutes Mary Shelley's premise that scientists will some day create life through brain transplants and other methodologies touched upon in her story. Parallels are made between genetics and the "Power of God" as well as issues concerning the existence of the human soul. Bibliography lists 3 sources which support the writer's thesis that there is more to "life" than the brain. Franken.wps

Nineteenth-Century Science in Frankenstein : A 10 page paper examining Mary Shelley’s work in the light of the scientific discoveries of the time. The paper particularly discusses the work of Sir Humphry Davy, Luigi Galvani, and Giovanni Aldini in relation to their theories about the connection between chemistry, electricity, and living matter. Bibliography lists 5 additional sources. Frank.wps

Hemophilia and Genetics : A comprehensive 5 page discussion of hemophilia and its genetic predictability. The disease and its symptoms are defined. Also discussed are modes of transmission, occurrence, and treatment. Some mention of the disease's history is included as well. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Hemophil.wps

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METEOROLOGY

Weather Patterns : A 5 page research paper on weather patterns. Topics included are types of clouds and cloud formation, global warming and the effects of El Nino. The writer also discusses how weather patterns can be predicted by observation, listening and a barometer. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Weatherp.wps

Effects of Adverse Weather on Beaches : A 7 page discussion of beach formation, beach profiles, and properties of sands. The writer then examines the effects that hurricanes, tornadoes, and monsoons have on beaches and the subsequent erosion that occurs. No Bibliography. Hurrmnsn.wps

El Nino – Problems & Impact : A 5 page paper discussing the weather phenomenon known as "El Nino." The paper outlines what causes it to happen and its far-reaching impact. Bibliography lists six sources. Elnino.wps

Effects of El Nino On The Agricultural Production of South America : This 8 page paper looks at the problems being caused by the weather phenomenon known as El Nino on crop production throughout South America. Bibliography lists 16 sources. Elnino.wps

Hurricane Season 1995 / The Role of Florida Law Enforcement : A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the 1995 hurricane season in Florida and considers the implications of natural disaster of this type for law enforcement officials. The writer demonstrates the need for increasing police interactions during the hurricane season because of the significant levels of human need. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Huricane.wps

The Phenomenon of Lightning : 7 pages in length. A complete discussion of lightning including : what it is, negative cloud-to-ground flashes, return strokes, ball lightning, and more. The problem meterologists have with regard to lightning's predictability is emphasized. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Lightnin.wps

Climate & Geographic Change Between The Late Triassic & Jurassic Periods :
A 7 page paper that discusses these changes in light of the disappearance of the dinosaur. The writer suggests that although this is still a mystery (unknowable fact), the geographic changes (tectonic plate theory, sea-floor theory) and climate changes from warm, moist climate to boreal at the end of the era are believed to have contributed to the demise of the dinosaur. Dinosaur groups and extinction are also considered within these definitions. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Mesozoic.wps

*See also EARTH & PHYSICAL SCIENCES (above) for papers on Beach Erosion and other related weather issues

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OCEANOGRAPHY, AQUACULTURE & COASTAL TOPOGRAPHY

Beach Erosion : 4 pages on Beach Erosion; its recent history, progression, costs etc;. Goes into detail about reasons for the erosive process. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Beachero.wps

Beach & Coastal Erosion : 5 pages discussing beach erosion at Sandy Hook (New Jersey). Discusses and analyzes possible methodologies for slowing such erosion. *Also an excellent resource for those studying meteorology and other related courses. No Bibliography. Coastero.wps

Miami Beach / Land & Coastal Survey : 5 pages in length. A thorough analysis of the Miami Beach area in which the writer attempts to evaluate dangers of coastal erosion and human influence in order to determine feasibility as a resort. Vegetation, humidity, definition of the barrier coast, and offshore fishing are among the many items discussed. Recommendations are made for municipal government funding of new sea walls to better protect the area from further erosion. The writer concludes, however, that very little danger ultimately exists. No Bibliography. Miamires.wps

Effects of Adverse Weather on Beaches : A 7 page discussion of beach formation, beach profiles, and properties of sands. The writer then examines the effects that hurricanes, tornadoes, and monsoons have on beaches and the subsequent erosion that occurs. No Bibliography. Hurrmnsn.wps

The Great Lakes : A 6 page discussion of the Great Lakes, their sources, natural environment, and pertinent theories. Bibliography lists three references. Greatlak.wps

Ocean Currents : 5 pages in length. The ocean waves that wash up to the shore in regular intervals do so because of currents that help move the water along its path. Without these currents, the sea would remain a stagnant body of water that could support no life. The writer outlines the concept of oceanic currents, as well as discusses their important duties with regard to all life on the planet. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Currents.wps

Water Desalinization : A 7 page paper on desalting the oceans. The writer details the history of desalinization, as well as the various techniques, and pros and cons of each. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Desalt.wps

Salt Water Intrusion / An Overview : A 5 page overview of the environmental problem of saltwater intrusion. Provides details of occurrences currently being experienced in Florida. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Swintrus.wps

The Great Barrier Reef / Physical Issues & Human Influence : An 8 page research paper on the Great Barrier Reef located off the northeastern coast of Queensland, Australia. For the most part, the writer discusses the formation of barrier reefs (in general), and the size, scope, and inhabitants of the Great Barrier Reef in particular. Human impacts, tourism, nutrients, algae, pollution, sediments, and various other elements of the reef's environment are discussed as well. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Reefgrea.wps

Coral Reefs & The Florida Keys : 4 pages in length. A brief, but comprehensive discussion of Coral Reefs and the ecological problems they face in the Florida Keys. Human factors are considered and some insight into the future is provided. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Coralree.wps

Coral Reef Ecosystems & The Florida Keys : 5 pages in length. A technical look at coral reefs and ecosystems in the Florida Keys. Food chains, biomass, and various other pertinent issues are touched upon. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Coralre2.wps

Electronic Devices & New England Fishermen : A 6 page research paper on the use of electronic devices by the New England fishing Industry. The writer describes the types of electronic devices, other technologies used, and the effect they have had on the industry and the fish supply in New England. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Fishinne.wps

Effects Of Acid Rain On Mid-Atlantic Trout Fishing : A 7 page paper on trout fishing in the mid-Atlantic region. For years, the practice has played a vital role in the area's economy but man's own abuses have severely damaged the environment and killed off a significant amount of fish. The writer examines this problem, its occurrence, and how it occurs. The production of acid rain and how it disrupts the food web is of primary importance to this discussion. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Troutfis.wps

Aquaculture & Fish Farming : An 8 page research paper on the rapidly growing aquaculture industry reviewing: why it is growing, why it is needed, who is entering the industry, what problems are encountered, and what solutions have been found. Special mention of Great Lakes region is included. Bibliography lists a number of relevant sources. Aquacult.wps

Whale Conservation : A 12 page paper describing the plight of the whales at the hands of humans. The writer describes the history of whaling, why it is important to conserve whales, and other human threats to whales. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Whales.wps

International Whaling Issues : This 3 page paper examines the issue of international whaling practices, the regulations, as well as the impact on several nations throughout the world. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Whaleint.doc

The Fishing Economy : A 7 page paper discussing the commercial fishing industry and its economic impact on coastal towns. Highlights the economic contributions of the industry to the communities with an examination of how overfishing in these regions can cripple the industry which ripples into destruction of the communities’ economic stability. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Fishing.wps

Issues Concerning Fisheries : 4 page discussion of fisheries- environmental issues, law & politics, and regulation relevant to salvaging dying breeds such as salmon. Paper includes thorough statistical data and factual information (as of early 1995). Bibliography lists 4+ sources. Fisheris.wps

Seahorses / With Particular Emphasis On Hippocampus ingens : A 5 page look at seahorse biology and impacts to their population such as the aquarium and pharmaceutical trades. Includes a particular emphasis on Hippocampus ingens. Bibliography lists twelve sources. Seahorse.wps

Ocean Dumping : A 5 page paper concerning the hazards of ocean dumping. The author discusses the many ways in which the ocean is polluted, the effects, and the solution. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Oceandum.wps

The Hawaiian Islands & Their Scientific Environment : Excellent for those studying oceanography, marine biology, geography, and even geology. This fairly technical 10 page research paper discusses various issues concerning the Hawaiian Islands including aquatic life, volcanoes, climate, and coastal topography. Bibliography lists approximately 10 sources. Hawaiifi.wps

The Limnology of Lake Michigan : A 9 page scientific research paper on the limnology of Lake Michigan (one of the United States' "Great Lakes"). Included are the limnological characteristics, climate & erosion, human & trophic conditions, and more. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Lakemich.wps

Monomictic Lakes : A 10 page paper that discusses the physical and biological characteristics of monomictic lakes, with a specific look at Georgia's Lake Oglethorpe. This paper demonstrates the characteristics of a monomictic lake, discusses seasonal changes and turn around, and presents the physical, biological and environmental impacts on this microhabitat. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Monomict.wps

The Consequences Of Ground Water Withdrawal : A 7 page examination of groundwater overdraft. Incudes information on environmental degradation and contamination, cones of depression, salt water intrusion and other impacts. Bibliography lists five sources. Grndwatr.wps

The Consequences Of Groundwater Withdrawal / Nitrate Contamination # 2 :
A 9 page overview of the potentials for groundwater contamination through the addition of nitrates. Identifies domestic wastewaters and fertilizers as two of the largest contributors to this contamination and identifies reclaimed wastewaters to wetlands treatment as an alternative to more typical discharges and as one which results in the reduction of nitrates and other nutrients. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Nitratec.wps

River Pollution, Causes & Solutions : A 5 page essay on the causes of river pollution and some of the solutions that are being implemented to cope with the problems. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Riverpol.wps

Water Pollution / Problems and Solutions : A 9 page paper on the problems facing the world, and particularly the U.S., in regards to water pollution. The paper concentrates on streams, surface and ground water pollution and the most likely polluters of those waters. The solutions addressed include cooperative efforts, educational efforts, technology and changes in the law. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Wpol.wps

Effects Of Agriculture On The Mississippi River: In 8 pages, the Mississippi River is discussed with special attention paid to the effects of agriculture on the river. Bibliography lists 19 sources. Missr.wps

The Science of Oceanography & The Job of Oceanographers : A complete 12 page research paper defining oceanography and explaining its various forms and sub-headings. Each type of oceanography is discussed and a look at some of the problems faced by oceanographers is presented. Of particular importance to the discussion is the fact that funding from the National Science Foundation has remained relatively "flat" for many years. **Case studies regarding ocean drilling, global warming, and various environmental issues are presented to illustrate the importance of increasing funding for oceanographers. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Oceanog1.wps

The Cruise Line Industry & The Factors Of Oceanography : A 5 page paper exploring the relationships between the cruise line industry and the forces of oceanography. Bibliography lists five sources. Cruiselin.wps

Underwater Video and Lightening : A 5 page paper that provides an accurate account of the impacts of water depth on color, images, and light waver consumption/scattering in underwater video processes. This also outlines some of the current technologies being used for underwater video recording. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Watvid.wps

Jacques-Yves Cousteau : 8 pages in length. A true pioneer of underwater beauty and freedom, Jacques-Yves Cousteau represented adventure and discovery to a worldwide audience. His contributions to mankind were grand and far-reaching, whether it was his invention of the aqua lung or merely one of his many underwater sea quests. His unwavering devotion to the sanctity of the sea was apparent in his works, the way he spoke of its magic and in how he lived his everyday life. The writer discusses his ultimate mission, as well as the passions that propelled the French explorer to dedicate his life to the sea. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Cousteau.wps

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PHYSICS

Physics / Theories Explained : A 5 page research paper that identifies the different branches of classical physics; identifies the two primary theories of modern physics and offers a brief description of advances made in the science during the 20th Century. Eightfold Way theory, or the theory of groupings, is explained. Bibliography included. Physics.wps

Chaos Theory : An 8 page research paper on chaos theory, fractals, etc;. The beginnings of chaos theory are discussed briefly, citing scientists who initially made discoveries and fostered the study of chaos, e.g., Lorenz, Mandelbrot. Based on the research, a premise is put forth: if order can be found in the most complex systems, then order or patterns can be found in events thought to be without any order (animal stampedes are used as one of several examples). Bibliography lists 6 sources. Chaos.wps

Lenz's Law : This law of physics is discussed in a 5 page general overview. A biography of its author, Heinrich F. E. Lenz, precedes the description of the law itself. Some information about Michael Faraday-- Lenz’s mentor, is included as well. Applications of Lenz’s law are provided. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Lenz.wps

Quantum Mechanics : A 6 page paper that provides an overview of the progression from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. This paper begins with the developments of Max Planck and considers a number of major theories, including Einstein's theory of relativity, and their application for quantum theory. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Quantum.wps

Physics & Religion : A 5 page overview of the science of physics and its relation to religion. Addresses the question of whether or not physics is "real" and its limitations. Emphasizes the works of Pythagoras who weaves an interesting blend of religion and the sciences. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Physrel.wps

Newton - - The Theory of Light : A 5 page research paper exploring theory of light beginning with Sir Isaac Newton's corpuscular theory of light. Essay reflects how this theory was used as the basis for current technology tracing the light and electromagnetic theorists and ending with a quote from Einstein. Bibliography included. Lightthe.wps

Newton’s Theory of Light # 2 : A 5 page overview. Though Isaac Newton’s calculus and mechanical theory still holds firm after nearly 400 years of attempts to disprove them, about all that remains intact of Newton’s theory of light is that sunlight is indeed a mixture of all the colors of the spectrum and can be split, as Newton demonstrated, into its separate physical components by means of a prism. Many still refer to him as the greatest scientist who ever lived, and the failure of his full theory of light to withstand the test of time and technological advances in investigative procedures and methods still does not detract from Newton’s genius. Bibliography lists four sources. Light.wps

G.F. Leibniz's Theory of Monads : A 4 page critique of Gottfield Wilheml Leibniz's Monad theory which attempts to describe a harmonious universe made up of an infinite number of monads, or units, arranged in a hierarchy and originating in the Supreme Monad, which is God. The writer feels that Leibniz's theory is both vague and overstated-- leaving room open for much question. No Bibliography. Leibniz.wps

G.F. Leibniz's Theory of Monads # 2 : Similar to Leibniz.wps, this 3 page essay looks at some of the reasons for Leibniz's creation of a Monad theory in light of the works of Newton & others. In the writer's opinion, the Monad theory was used to fill some unseen "gap" created by unclear ideas such as gravity. Leibniz2.wps

The Derivative In Average & Instantaneous Velocity : A 5 page paper explaining both average and instantaneous velocities. The writer demonstrates the relationship between the derivative and these primary functions. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Velocity.wps

Position Displacement & Distance Traveled By An Object : A 7 page paper that provides an overview of these two elements as they relate to velocity. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Velocity.RTF*

General Principles of Thermodynamics : A very thorough 15 page research paper on the principles of thermodynamics . The writer details the nature of thermodynamics, the ideal gas and its theoretical applications, the laws of thermodynamics, classical thermodynamics, and practical applications. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Thermody.wps

Engineering Thermodynamics : A 9 page overview of engineering thermodynamics with coverage of the topics of ideal verses actual gases, energy analysis of open and closed systems, internal combustion engines, gas turbines, refrigeration and air conditioning systems, fluid flow in nozzles and turbomachinery, and heat transfer and heat exchangers. Bibliography lists a number of sources. Entherm.wps

Dynamics & The Field Of Engineering : A 15 page research paper describing some of the engineering applications of the study of dynamics. Fluid, aero-, structural and flight dynamics are discussed in the most depth, but other disciplines are also mentioned and includes mechanical dynamics, thermodynamics, vehicle dynamics, physical dynamics and Magnetohydrodynamics, along with other areas of dynamics studies. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Dynamics.wps

Fluid Dynamics / An Overview : A 10 page overview of fluid dynamics. Includes a discussion on Fluid Statics including Viscousity,Surface Tension, Vapor Pressure, and compressibility as well as other topics which are pertinent to fluid dynamics. Discusses the importance of fluid dynamics in biological and mechanical systems. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Fluiddyn.wps

The History, Purpose, & Physics Of The Steam Engine : A complete 10 page overview of the steam engine including its function, purpose, history, and development. The writer is very specific and cites a number of historical people involved in working on this technology. The physics of how steam produces work are explained as is the mechanical operation of various types of steam engines. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Steameng.wps

Impact Of The Steam Engine Analyzed : This 5 page research paper examines the importance of the steam engine to modern society. Specifically discussed is the steam engine's cultural and social impact and how this invention led to many other technological advances. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Steamen2.wps

Kinesiology and Recreation : A 15 page paper that provides an overview of the core concepts of kinesiology and applies them to specific elements of recreational programming. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Kinesi.wps

Heating - Cooling Conditioning System / Utilizing Circulated Hot & Cold Water :
A 27 page paper that provides an overview of issues concerning implementing different heating and cooling systems. The writer ultimately proposes the implementation of circulated water systems using coiled panels. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Heatcool.wps

Is There A Natural Order In The Universe ? -Yes ! : A 3 page paper that argues against the statement "there is a natural order in our universe." This paper demonstrates that while there is support for some natural order, that randomness and man's systematic (or created) order are prevalent. Bibliography lists 1 source. Natural2.wps

Is There A Natural Order In The Universe ? -No ! : A 3 page paper that argues for the statement that "there is a natural order in our universe." This paper demonstrates that from scientific, philosophical and social perspectives, there is a natural order. Bibliography lists 1 source. Naturalo.wps

Atomic Energy / Use & Control : A 24 page paper that reports and analyzes the use of atomic energy in the late 1940's. Along with a short defenition of what atomic energy is, the paper talks about how atomic energy was used and the measures by which it was controlled. Extensive bibliography included. Atomener.wps

Einstein's Mathematics : In 5 pages the author discusses Albert Einstein's contributions to the field of science and mathematics while explaining such theories as E=mc2. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Einsmath.wps

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