WESTERN
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England
(Before 1700)

France
(Before 1700)


Italy

Europe's General
History & Culture

The Greeks &
Romans Specifically

Other Ancient
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The Church

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England
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Other Ancient
Civilizations

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England
(Before 1700)

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Other Ancient
Civilizations

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England
(Before 1700)

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Romans Specifically

Other Ancient
Civilizations

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England
(Before 1700)

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Romans Specifically

Other Ancient
Civilizations

The Church

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(Before 1700)

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ENGLAND (Before 1700)

Anglo-Saxon Settlement In England : This 11 page paper examines the Anglo-Saxon settlement in England -- why they moved there, their subsequent society and culture. Particular emphasis is paid to medieval literature and its reflection of the Anglo-Saxons. Bibliography lists 8+ sources. Anglosax.wps

Francis I : 5 page biography and general discussion of England's Francis I (16th century). Good for those studying Western Civilization; Keyword Western Civ. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Frances.wps

Frederick II : Brief 4 page biographical overview of Frederick II- the eighteenth century English monarch. Paper outlines his life, times, and political activities. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Fredrick.wps

The Life of Henry VIII : A short, 5 page overview and discussion of King Henry VIII's life, career, and many marriages. No Bibliography available. HenryVII.wps

The Wives of Henry VIII : A 9 page paper tracing the six marriages of Henry VIII. Discusses points of Henry's wives, what prompted him to marry so many times, and what type of person he was. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Hen8.wps

Henry VIII's Wives, a Comparison : 6 pages in length. This paper discusses and compares two of King Henry VIII's six wives and their very different fates at the hand of their husband. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Henry.wps, Henwives.wps

Book Review / "Bloody Mary" -- Queen of England : Mary I has come down in history with the unpleasant name of "Bloody Mary" because of the religious persecutions of her reign. This 7 page paper reviews W.F.M. Prescott's book entitled "Mary Tudor" -- a text which goes into considerable detail about the Queen's terrifying reign. No other sources are cited. Quenmary.wps

Queen Elizabeth I / Her Life and Contributions : An 8 page paper discussing the life and reign of Queen Elizabeth I to England. Bibliography lists six sources. Queene.wps

Queen Elizabeth I and Oliver Cromwell : Both English leaders are compared and contrasted in this 6 page analysis which focuses on biographies of these famous subjects. Queen Elizabeth I by John E. Neale and Oliver Cromwell by Peter Gaunt are discussed in depth. No additional sources are cited. Elizcrom.wps

World Exploration During the Reign of Queen Elizabeth I : A 7 page overview of English exploration of the world during the late sixteenth century. Gives a brief description of political unrest in England during this time period. Emphasizes the voyages of Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Francis Drake. Describes the difficulties early explorers and colonists faced in the "New World." Bibliography lists six sources. Worldex.wps

King Canute : 10 pages in length. After a century as Danish plunder of England, Canute came to the throne. He was also the king of Denmark and Sweden but held a special fondness for England. His reign was peaceful and prosperous for England. Canute’s life and work are discussed. Bibliography included. Canute.wps

King John and the Magna Carta / Historical Perspective Can Vary : A 5 page overview of King John of England. Presents the perspective that the societal wrongs typically associated with King John were really in existence prior to his gaining the throne and that the Magna Carta’s original provisions were designed to protect England’s rich, not her common citizens. Bibliography lists four sources. Johnking.wps

Blaming Kings James I & Charles I For The English Civil War : This 5 page essay discussed the extent to which kings James and Charles can be blamed for the Civil War. It discusses the Religious tensions at the time- between the Catholics and the Anglicans and the Puritans. Also mentioned: the Court of the Star Chamber and the Archbishop of Laud. King.wps

English Feudalism : A 6 page paper discussing English feudalism under two kings: Edward the Confessor, and William the Conqueror. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Engfued.wps

Feudalism, The Norman Conquest, & 11th Century English Politics : In this 9 page paper, the writer is concerned with whether or not Feudalism imposed by the 11th century Norman Conquest truly had an impact on politics in England. Issues of ownership, social class, and much more are examined to reach the ultimate conclusion that the impact of Feudalism was a positive one indeed. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Normancq.wps

How the Urban Revolution Of The 11th Century Eroded The Feudal System :
This 5 page paper examines the impact of urbanization on the established system of feudalism in the Middle Ages. The Magna Carta, the growth of cities, the centralization of governmental power all led toward the ultimate collapse of feudalism. Bibliography lists six sources. Urbrev.wps

The Differences Between Feudalism Before and After the Norman Conquest : This 8 page paper reviews how feudalism evolved from its original application after the Norman Conquest and the rule of William I. Bibliography lists five sources. Diffno.wps

Medieval Feudalism : A 6 page research paper exploring the elements of medieval feudalism in England. Descriptions of what constituted medieval feudalism, reason for wars, status of women and the decline of the feudal system are discussed. Bibliography lists 5 references. Feud.wps

The Magna Carta & The Constitution : A 5 page essay which compares the English document with the American Constitution. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Magnacar.wps

Stonehenge : A 1 page essay on the architectural construction of Stonehenge; a mystical European creation from the New Kingdom Temple- era. Bibliography lists 1 source. Stonehnge.wps *TOTAL FOR THIS ESSAY ONLY $ 9.95 !

Stonehenge Temples in England : The writer of this 14 page research paper provides an informative informative view on the Stonehenge Temples in England. The description of Stonehenge is inclued, as well as the theories on how this monument came to be. Bibliography included. Stoneh.wps

England’s Civil War / The Roundhead Rebellion : This 11 page report summarizes the history of the English Civil War during the period of 1642-1651. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Roundhea.wps

The Foundation Beneath English Relief For The Poor : An 11 page research paper examining poverty and its growth during the reign of Elizabeth I. England’s population nearly doubled during the period between 1520 and 1620. Coupled with an estimated 40% inflation with no appreciable rise in wages, those on the fringe lost living standard ground and their numbers increased dramatically. The first attempts at poor relief were made during Henry VIII’s reign, but the first real strides were gained during the time of Elizabeth I. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Poor2.wps

Life in Elizabethan England Analyzed : This 6 page research paper describes the life of a typical member of Elizabethan society. Specifically discussed are Elizabethan work, play, food, drink, fashions, hairstyles and amusements. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Elizeng.wps

English History Essays : 8+ page worth of essays pertaining to English history. Topics include William the Conqueror, Henry II, Thomas Becket, The Magna Carta, The Hundred Years' War, and the Wars of the Roses. Bibliography lists 6 primary and secondary references. Enghisty.wps

French and English Colonization : A 6 page paper discussing the affects of French and English colonization from the 1500’s to present day and the benefits derived from it. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Frenenc.wps

The Governments Of France & England : A 6 page paper discussing the rise of France and England in power after the end of the Crusades. Analyzes the feudal and aristocratic systems of government in each country and draws comparisons to the present-day US. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Freneng.wps

The Role Of Private Property According To Karl Marx & John Locke : A 5 page paper discussing the different attitudes Marx and Locke had regarding the issue of private property. Bibliography lists three sources. KarlJohn.doc

John Locke’s "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding" / Ideas : A 4 page essay discussing John Locke’s perceptions and philosophy regarding human ideas as the primary and the difference to ideas of the secondary qualities. No additional sources cited. Ideas.wps

The Social Effects of the Glorious Revolution : A 9 page research paper on William III's accession to the throne of England and its affect on the various social classes in England. The writer details religious toleration, the standing army, the Restoration settlement, freedom of thought and speech, and other issues which resulted from the 1688 Revolution. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Glorrevo.wps

The Puritan Revolution vs.The Bloodless (Glorious) Revolution : A 9 page paper that discusses the similarities between these two events in British history. The basic premise for both of these acts of insurrection against the reigning monarchy developed from dissatisfaction in the religious status of the Parliament and the monarchy and dissent between the two. Though the players were different in both of these actions, the basis was in similar disputes over religion, and the political and social ramifications of these differences. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Puritanbl.wps English revolution, Glorious revolution

Neoclassicism & The Development Of The Asylum : A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the history of England as it reflects the neoclassism of the 17th and 18th centuries and correlates this to the development of England's earliest asylum. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Neoasyl.wps

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FRANCE (Before 1700)

The Story Of Abelard's Adversities : This 5 page essay explores several aspects of an excerpt from Abelard's autobiography, focusing on the character of the author with quotations to substantiate the writer's opinions. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Abelard2.wps

The Influence of Charlemagne : A 6 page paper giving an overview of Charles the Great’s influence in France. He was also known as Charlemagne. He was considered one of the greatest leaders in history. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Charlem.wps

The Empire of Charlemagne vs. The Roman Empire : This 6 page essay compares the effect of Charlemagne’s Empire with that of the Roman Empire. Each was the undisputed ruler of its peoples with a passion for both the cultural and the political. Bibliography lists four sources. Charl.wps

Louis the Pious : A 5 page essay on Charlemagne’s only legitimate son. The writer posits that although Louis was a weak governor in many ways, which resulted in his failure to unite Germany, he instilled within all of the Germanic tribes the desire for study. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Luispios.wps

Eleanor Of Aquitaine : An 8 page biographical essay about one of the Middle Ages most dynamic women. Queen of Henry II, mother of Richard the Lion Hearted, she was one of history’s most remarkable women. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Aquitain.wps

Isabella, She-Wolf of France : An 8 page essay on the Queen consort of Edward II who, partially in retaliation for his homosexual affairs, led a successful rebellion against him. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Isabella.wps

Joan of Arc : A 5 page research paper on the life and legacy of Joan of Arc. The writer describes the Saint's early life, her visions, the major cities she visited, her captivity, trial and execution. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Joanofar.wps

Louis XIV & The Edict Of Nantes : A 5 page essay on the French Sun King and his relationship with the Catholic Church and the Protestants within his kingdom. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Ednantes.wps

The Influence Of Louis XIV On French Nobility : A 4 page research paper which examines how Louis XIV as an absolute monarch manipulated and controlled court life and the French nobility. The writer includes references to contemporary writings of the time, specifically "Tartuffe" by Moliere and the letters of Madame de Sevigne. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Infl14.wps

Monks in Medieval France / Vows Of Chastity ? : 6 pages in length. Medieval monks.. did they adhere to their vows of chastity, poverty, obedience, and sometimes silence? Research suggests not. Evidence points to excesses in physical pleasures, especially in the realms of sex and food. The sometimes perverted sexual habits of some of the monks has been passed down through anecdotal records. Bibliography included. Monks.wps

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ITALY


Marco Polo : In 5 pages, the author discusses the life and contributions of Marco Polo. He was one of the greatest explorers of all times. Marco Polo gave Europeans a glimpse of the exotic Orient. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Marcpolo.wps

High Medieval Neoplatonism : 4 pages in which Neoplatonism is defined, compared to today's New Age Movement, and discussed in terms of the move during the beginnings of the Italian Renaissance away from Aristotelian philosophy and toward that of Plato. Discusses the debate between Islamic philosophers Avicenna and al-Ghazali, and the resistance of Catholic leaders to accept the doctrine when at the same time they were relying on some of its tenets. Icon.wps

Christian Iconography & Medieval Burial Rites : A 14 page paper discussing the influence of Christian symbolism and iconography in the Middle Ages. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Icon.doc

The History Of The Italian Mafia : A 20 page paper discussing the history of the Italian Mafia from the ninth century to the present time. Bibliography lists 17 sources. Mafia.wps

The Role Of Women & Non-Elites In Renaissance Italy : A 5 page paper that considers the role of women and non-elites in Renaissance Italy and outlines the elements of the Italian court. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Italian.renaissance.doc

Humanism / Italian Renaissance & Northern Humanism : A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the differentiation between Italian and Northern humanism, and considers the role of men like Erasmus of Rotterdam. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Humanism.north.doc

Humanism & The Italian Renaissance / Development Of Late Medieval : A 5 page paper that provides and overview of humanism during the Italian Renaissnace and considers the impacts on social constructs, religion and medieval thought. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Humitaly.wps

Corruption in the Roman Catholic Church During the Middle Ages : A well-written 8 page paper detailing the political corruptions of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages as well as some of its causes and effects. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Chriscor.wps

The "Holy Church of Rome" - High Middle Ages Thru The 17th Century : A 5 page paper relating to questions surrounding the development and attitudes of the Christian church in the evermore sophisticated world. No bibliography. Jesush.wps

The Renaissance & Catholic Reform : This 7 page paper discusses the how the European Renaissance was responsible for the Protestantism of Calvinism and Lutheranism and reform within the Catholic Church. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Renreli.wps

City Planning In Renaissance Italy : A 12 page research paper that analyzes the role of the Renaissance in Italian architecture and city planning, focusing on the cities of Venice, Florence, and Rome. The writer postulates that the Renaissance style of simplicity and symmetry, along with each city’s geography, particularly influenced the development of neighborhoods and communities. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Renitaly.wps

The Thirteenth Century In Italy : 4 pages in length. Essay analytically discusses socio-political and socio-political problems in 13th century Italy. Social classes and gender roles are touched upon. Bibliography lists 2 sources. 13thcent.wps

Italian Music & Its Development Over a Thousand Years : An 8 page discussion of Italian music and its key works & figures during various times ranging from the Middle Ages through the Baroque, Renaissance, and 19th & 20th century periods. Many key composers and the significance of their historic contributions are discussed. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Italmusi.wps

Machiavelli, Erasmus, and Pico della Mirandola On Human Nature : A 7 page paper that compares three Italian humanists and their perspectives on human nature. This paper demonstrates the way in which the independent perspectives of these three authors, though all based in ancient philosophy, create different concepts of the origin of human nature. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Three.wps

Machiavelli’s "The Prince" : This 5 page paper discusses The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli. Examples of Machiavellian monarchies are noted as the writer interprets the political meaning of Machiavelli’s writing. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Prince.wps

Machiavelli's "The Prince"/ Gaining Esteem : 7 pages in length. An analytical examination of this classic work in political theory. The writer pays particular attention to Chapter XXI in which Machiavelli discusses how The Prince will gain great esteem if he engages successfully in important enterprises. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Machiav2.wps

Machiavelli's "The Prince" / Concept Of Leadership : A 9 page paper that provides an overview of the basic leadership concepts supported in Machiavelli's The Prince, and then suggest comparisons with leaders of recent times. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Machi.wps

Machiavelli's "The Prince" / Virtue : A 5 page essay exploring the virtues and vices of Machiavelli's story. The writer argues that the critics of his work that proclaim his evil are not looking at the big picture, but only its outcome. Arguments: Machiavelli's purpose in writing the document and where he places emphasis in the document and how this is ignored by critics. Bibliography lists 4 sources. (The Prince primarily). Princem.wps

Machiavelli's "The Prince" / Perfect Ruler : A 5 page paper that considers the elements of rulership presented in Machiavelli's The Prince and demonstrates the contradictions between what a ruler should present and what a ruler should embrace. No additional sources cited. Machperf.wps

Principles From Machiavelli’s "The Prince" / Applied To The French Revolution : A 6 page essay that uses looks to Machiavelli’s book for the a further understanding of the events of the Revolution. Prinfren.wps

Political Leadership According to Plato and Machiavelli : A 5 page paper discussing bot the similarities and differences between Plato and Machiavelli’s views of political leadership. Bibliography lists "The Prince" by Machiavelli and "The Republic" by Plato as sources. Plrpine.wps

Machiavelli vs. Plato : 8 pages in length. A light comparison between Machiavelli's "The Prince" and Plato's "Republic." The writer examines each of the author's respective eras, backgrounds, and influences before making determinations about the political similarities and differences between their two infamous works. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Michiave.wps

DaVinci's "Mona Lisa" : A 4 page research paper on DaVinci's infamous painting "Mona Lisa" in which the writer presents their own opinion of the work and then complements it with in-depth historical analysis and factual information about the artist, the model, and even the work's original name. From an artistic perspective, the materials and methods used to paint the Mona Lisa are described as being genuinely representative of DaVinci's era. Monalisa.wps

Nicola Vincentino: His Life, Times & Works : A 9 page research paper on the life and work of the 16th century composer. The writer details the context of his life and work in regard to the music of the time, his harmonic theories, and his published works. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Vincenti.wps

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EUROPE'S GENERAL
HISTORY & CULTURE

Don’t Forget To Also Check Out Our Special MEDIEVAL TIMES Section !

Developments Preceding the European Industrial Revolution : A 5 page survey of the major developments that lead to the European Industrial Revolution. Writer traces major religious, political and economic developments from 1100 A.D. up through the Eighteenth century. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Eurind.wps

Changes In European Social Groups, Economics, & Religions From 800-1400 AD : This brief, 3 page essay looks at changes that swept the entire cultural fabric of Europe in the Middle Ages. Bibliography lists two sources. Socecre.wps

The Reformation In Germany And In England – Role Of The Renaissance :
This 3 page essay looks at the two Reformations of England and Germany. It also reviews the role played by the Renaissance in the events. Bibliography lists three sources. Reforma.wps

Humanism’s Contribution To The Reformation : A 6 page paper discussing the role of humanistic thought in the Reformation. Many believe "humanism" to be an arrogance embodied in an attitude that reflects the 1970s attitude of the "I’m OK, you’re OK" ilk. Most of those would be incredulous to learn that humanism, far from being an arrogance of single human worth, was as a movement and attitude of believing that humans could be far more than they had been until the time toward the end of the Dark Ages. We know today that there are factions that agree only on few items aside from the basics of Christianity (i.e., Jesus is God’s Son), but today’s Christianity is largely based on the humanism that helped drive the Reformation more than 400 years ago. Bibliography lists 4 sources. MLuther.wpd

Ferdinand Of Aragon & Isabel Of Castile : This 7 page analysis looks at Spain during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabel during the 15th century. Their union resulted in a unification never before seen in Spain. Bibliography list five sources. Aragon.wps

Alvar Cabeza De Vaca y Nunez : A 5 page paper on the story of Cabaza de Vaca -- a relatively unknown explorer. It tells of the tragic and exciting account of the Spain’s attempt in 1528 to colonize Florida, and also briefly talks about Cabaza's life before and after his journeys. Cabeza.wps

St. Ignatius Loyola Examined : This 5 page research paper explores the life and spiritual journey of St. Ignatius Loyola, Spanish nobleman turned founder of the Society of Jesus Jesuit mission. Specifically discussed are the circumstances which led him to dedicate his life to God, his "Spiritual Exercises," which laid the foundation for his order known for both spirituality and education. Bibliography lists several sources. Stignat.wps

1600 - 1700 / Changes In Europe : A 5 page examination of the changing attitudes of people from the seventeenth century to the eighteenth century in Europe. Discusses the quest for new answers and the willingness of people to make decisions simply based on their own needs and desires. Bibliography lists three references. Eur1718.wps

(The) Black Death in Europe : An 8 page paper on the social and political occurrence and consequence of the Black Death (the bubonic plague) in Europe. The writer discusses various relevant issues including the art which resulted from the devastation and even the persecution of Jews as the group supposedly responsible for bringing the plague (western civ). Bibliography included. Blackdea.wps

The Bubonic Plague -- Compared With The A.I.D.S. Plague : In this insightful 5 page essay, the writer discusses similarities between the Bubonic, or "Black Plague" (a.k.a. "Black Death") of the 14th century, and the modern-day A.I.D.S. crisis. Public health and social issues are taken into consideration as they relate to each of the two societies discussed. Stereotypes, discrimination, and popular fears are analyzed as well. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Bubonaid.wps

Jews During the Ottoman Empire : A 10 page paper tracing the history of the Jews and their persecution during the Ottoman Empire. Discusses the history of the Jews leading up to the Ottoman Empire to establish a background for understanding the persecution during the empire's 600 year existence. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Jewsotto.wps

Medieval Times -- Are "The Dark Ages" An Appropriate Term ? : This 8 page paper looks at Medieval Times, asking whether or not the term dark ages adequately describes the historical period. The middle ages are discussed in terms of its historical place as well as its characteristics. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Dkages.wps

Medieval Judaism : A 3 page essay responding to the lot of the Jewish in the Middle Ages. The paper mentions the premier Jewish philosopher of the era, Maimonides, and a few of his positions that are tenets of Orthodox Jewish doctrine today. It glances at the fact that practicing Jews, through application, education and commitment, are generally effective at their work, regardless of what that work might be, and that the anti-Semitism of the time might have sprung more from envy than from dogmatic differences. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Jews.wps

Medieval Coinage : In this 8 page research paper, the writer examines issues and circumstances concerning the coining of money during medieval times. Economic situations are assessed and the overall impact that coining had over the centuries is determined. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Coins.wps

Medieval Monasticism : A 3 page essay examining the role of monasteries in the Middle Ages, and using Monte Cassino, founded by St. Benedictine, as the standard against which others are compared. One cited reference. Monast.wps

Importance Of The Ride & Spread Of Western Monasticism : A 5 page paper reviewing the contributions made to Western civilizations by the men and women of monastic communities from the days of early Christianity to the Reformation. It is argued that these communities, where service to God and humanity superseded personal concerns, were significant in making Christianity a worldwide religion as well as preserving much of the knowledge of ancient Graeco-Roman civilization that could have been lost during the Middle Ages. In addition, the contribution of monasticism to the understanding of egalitarian communal life, to art, music and architecture, and to scholarship is considered. Bibliography lists 5 sources. W. Monasticism.doc

The Inquisition As A Response To Heresy : A 4 page research paper which explores the way the Church regarded heresy, and the formation of the Inquisition as a response to this problem. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Hersyinq.wps

Heretic to Witch /The Evolution of Terror : A 4 page research paper which examines how the image of the heretic evolved into that of the witch during the time of the Inquisition. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Herewitc.wps

Judaism vs. Catholicism / Before The Inquisition : An 8 page paper that posits that antisemitism was built slowly over the first millenia C.E., and that prior to the Inquisition, the theology of Judaism and Catholicism followed the same general path, meeting the same intents for the two religions. The paper shows that although the intent was the same and the timing of interpretations followed similar paths, the philosophies behind the two religions were different from the beginning. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Judocath.wps

Misogyny In the Extreme / The Age of the Witch Hunts : A 10 page analysis of Joseph Klaits’ book Servants of Satan: the Age of the Witch Hunts. The writer demonstrates that Joseph Klaits is an unusual scholar. Most historians, particularly male ones, have discounted the fact that most of the victims of the witch hunts were women. Klaits says straight out that "witch craze’s slaughter of women was the result of the spread of woman-hatred in the spiritually reformed elites and its application in the reformers’ campaigns against folk religion" (44). No additional sources cited. Klaits.wps

The Transition From Early To High Middle Ages : A 3 page essay on a few of the points marking the transition from the early (or mid-) to the High Middle Ages. Briefly discussed are the influences of rural to urban life and the ensuing governmental changes, the rise of cultural and educational pursuits, and the new influence of the church. One cited reference. Rise.wps

Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages / Book Review : 5 page review and discussion of the book "The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages," by Robert S. Lopez. Book describes changes (mostly economic) during the Middle Ages and surrounding periods in Europe. Excellent for those studying courses relevant to the History of Western Civilization. Commrevo.wps

Demon Iconography Flourished Throughout The Art Of The Middle Ages : Numerous examples have been discovered of the influence, both artistically and ecclesiastically, of the presence of the devil in the lives of common people and saints depicted in the many carvings, sculptures, and paintings of medieval times. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Demonico.wps

The Rise of Universities In the Middle Ages : A 5 page research paper which looks at how this intrinsic part of Western civilization originated during a time in history which is thought of as the "Dark Ages." The writer points out how only a handful of the Western institutions can claim the continuous longevity of universities. Bibliography lists 5 sources. RisoUniv.wps.

Islam & The Baptism Of Europe : A 3 page essay on the relationship of the five pillars of Islam to the Baptism of Europe and the effect of Neoplatonism on the growth of both Islam and Christianity. One cited reference. Islam.wps

The European Renaissance : This 7 page paper examines the impact of the European Renaissance on the concept of an absolute monarchy in France. In addition, it discusses the resulting Baroque period and the scientific revolution that were directly attributed to the Renaissance and the turmoil caused as a result. Frenchmo.wps

Renaissance History / The Moral Philosophy of the Humanists : A 9 page paper that provides an overview of the issue of morality and man's human nature as they relate to the Humanists of Renaissance Europe. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Renhum.wps

The Renaissance & Humanism In the Art and Music in San Marco, Venice :
A 12 page paper that provides a comprehensive overview of the significant features of the art and music of San Marco, Venice during the Renaissance era and considers the relationship between the art and the ideal of humanism. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Venicen.wps

Women In The Renaissance Thru The French Revolution / Voices from the Silence :
An 11 page paper on how women were subjugated in the Renaissance and started to get serious about their status during the French Revolution. The paper postulates that voices where heard throughout the 300-year period as well. Bibliography lists approximately 10 sources. Renwomn.wps

Prostitution in the Middle Ages : A 10 page paper discussing prostitution and its evolution during the Middle Ages. Reasons women entered prostitution, what their choices were, and society’s viewpoints and condemnation are also reviewed. Bibliography lists 11 sources. Midprost.wps

Human Happiness & Passion / Montaigne To Mill : A 14 page paper that utilizes the literature of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries to represent common perspectives about the themes of human happiness, love, passion, and the human condition during varying times in European history. Descartes, Hegel, Hume, Keats, & Marx are among the many authors discussed. Bibliography lists 16 sources. Humanhap.wps

A History of Dictionaries : This 7 page paper provides an overview of the "invention" of dictionaries, their evolution over time, and their role in the development of human communication. Bibliography lists four sources. Diction.wps

History of Writing : A 10 page paper which gives an historical overview of the history of writing, beginning with the hieroglyphics and progressing to present day. Discusses such achievements as Gutenberg's printing press and the creation of punctuation. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Writing.wps

The Legacy Of The Vikings : A 4 page review of P. Sawyer's "Age of Vikings" -- a book describing the activities of Viking people. The Vikings were Nordic people including but not limited to Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians, who ranged abroad during a period of dynamic Scandinavian expansion in the Middle Ages, from about the year 800 A.D. until 1100 A.D. Sawyer is particularly concerned with presenting the contributions & accomplishments of the Viking people over the centuries. No other sources cited. Vikingbk.wps

The Vikings / Villains or Heroes? : A 5 page research paper which examines whether the Vikings were primarily a constructive or a destructive force in European development. The writer shows that while the term "Viking" has been used to describe those who made brutal raids on European coastal settlements, it has also been used to describe the peaceful Scandinavian farmers, traders and craftsmen who brought beneficial skills to the European countries in which they settled. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Vikings.wps

Christopher Columbus : 4 page analytical review of "Admiral of the Ocean Sea," a book by Samuel Eliot Morison that goes into great detail about Christopher Columbus and his voyage to the "New World." No Bibliography. Chriscol.wps

Young Men and Fire / Youth, Identity & Tragedy : A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the issues of youth, identification and tragedy in Norman Maclean's Young Men and Fire -- an account of 1949’s Mann Gulch fire. No additional sources cited. Maclean.wps

Dr. Martin Luther King & The Dilemma Of The American Negro / Then & Now : An 8 page essay exploring the conditions described in Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s book, "Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community?", to conditions for the African American in 1997, thirty years after the book was published. Specifically, Chapter IV is reviewed and compared to conditions of racism and opportunities in both eras. The writer offers examples and the thesis that conditions have definitely changed for the better but racism is still prevalent in the country. Two additional sources are cited. Dilemma.wps

Eurocentricism As An Obstacle To Learning True Latin-American History : A 4 page look at issues concerning the Pre-Columbian Americas. The writer stresses that fact that civilizations covered the continent long before the arrival of the Europeans and never considered themselves to be "of the Americas." The journey of Columbus was only a "landmark" event from a Eurocentric perspective. Of particular importance in this essay is that we cannot possibly attempt to understand the diversified culture of Pre-Colombians, Native Indians, and so forth-- because most records were destroyed by the arriving Europeans--who re-wrote history from their own perspective. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Precolum.wps

Influence of Military Revolution in the Rise of Nation-States : A 4 page research paper which examines the rise of France, Russia and Prussia as strong nations towards the end of the seventeenth century. The writer argues that this was due to a "military revolution" in which the military buildup of each nation contributed significantly to its rise. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Milirev.wps

Pope Gregory VII : An 10 page paper on Pope Gregory VII (papacy 1073-1084). This paper presents a history of his political dealings and philosophies under the precept of his visions which are: that the church should control the government and that an army of Christian Knights should go forth and ensure, at whatever cost, the conversion of all humanity to Catholicism. He did not instigate the Crusades in his time, but he fathered the idea and it was carried out beginning ten years after his death. The paper presents in detail his political dealings with King Henry IV under his precept that the church should rule over kings and lords. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Gregory.wps

The Foundation of Early Modern Europe 1460-1559 : A 3 page paper describing key events occurring during this time period. The writer details the accomplishments of the Renaissance artists and describes the political structure of Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. No Bibliography. Europe.wps

Family Life During the Middle Ages : A 6 page research paper focusing on the family, but specifically on the involvement of the church and castle within that family. The writer describes the way of life for both the upper and lower classes, and relevant information regarding this time period. Middleag.wps

The Role of Minstrels During the Middle Ages : A complete 5 page overview of the varying roles that minstrels played during the Middle Ages. The focus of the discussion is upon different types of music, instrumentation, lyrics, Gregorian chants, etc;-- Some mention of jugglers, fiddlers, dancers, and jesters exists in the body of the paper as well. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Minsrpt.wps

Agriculture in the Middle Ages : A 5 page piece on the communities that established agriculture in the middle ages, the types of farming technology used, and the inner workings of the community hierarchy as it relates to farming. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Medagri.wps

Importance of the Reformation in Europe : A 5 page research paper on the effect of the Protestant Reformation on Europe in the Sixteenth century. The writer details how each country reacted politically and socially. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Reform.wps

Women & Christian Witch Hunts During The Reformation : During the Reformation era, persecution of women whom the Catholic Church perceived to be "witches" was at an all-time high. This 12 page paper examines sociopolitical issues from that time as well as specific theological views on witchery and witchcraft. It is argued that fear and ignorance towards women (i.e., "the transformation of the witch from wanton woman to bad wife") led to much of the scare and confusion. A final section also compares the persecution of women as witches during the Reformation with that of Jewish people during the same period. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Witchcra.wps

The Decline Of Witch Hunts / End Of A Nightmare : A 4 page research paper which examines why the witch-hunts of Europe finally declined in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries after plaguing the continent for centuries. Bibliography lists 1 source. Declinew.wps

The Decline of the Witch Hunts / The End Of The Nightmare : A 4 page research paper which examines why the witch-hunts of Europe finally declined in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries after plaguing the continent for centuries. Bibliography lists 1 source. Declinew.wps

Renaissance -- Groundwork Of The Western World : A 6 page paper discussing the Renaissance and its differences and similarities to contemporary society. The writer briefly examines science, culture, politics, philosophy, and other key aspects of the culture. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Westworl.wps

Galileo's Letter to the Dutchess : 5 page analytical review of an infamous letter from Galileo to the Dutchess in his own defense (many accused him of disrespecting principles set forth in the bible). Please send e-mail to request more information. No Bibliography. Galileo.wps

Galileo Galilei - His Impact On Our Lives Today : A 7 page paper on the Renaissance mathematician, scientist and inventor which examines his legacy to us as we live in a modern world influenced by the scientific perspectives and methods he espoused during his life. Current applications of discoveries, inventions, and philosophy of science pioneered by Galileo in a wider variety of fields are discussed. Bibliography list 17 Sources. Galpap.wps

Galileo Galelei and the Heliocentric Model : 10 pages in length. A discussion of the life and works of Galileo and the religious controversy that surrounded his heliocentric model. Galileo was among the first to suggest that the planets revolved around the sun and not around the Earth. The specific reason and issues surrounding his condemnation are examined. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Galile2.wps

Turmoil Created By The Heliocentric Theory : A 9 page history of the turmoil created by the revelation of the heliocentric theory by Copernicus, Keppler and Galileo in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Bibliography lists nine sources. Earthmov.wps

The Gothic Cathedrals : 15 pages on the Gothic cathedral movement between 1100 - 1500 a.d. in Europe. Divides into centuries. Describes Gothic architecture, changes and developments for each time period. Includes descriptions of major cathedrals for each century. Bibliography lists 15 sources. Gothicca.wps

Westminster Abbey of London – A Gothic Architectural Ideal : This 10 page paper examines Gothic architecture, its attributes and characteristics, as well as the historical context in which it evolved. Westminster Abbey is the specific building examined. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Abbey.wps

Religious Symbolism In The Architecture Of Westminster Abbey : A 10 page essay examining the ways in which the Abbey plays a significant role both in the religious and political consciousness of the England. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Westabb.wps

The History of Traffic Law : A 4 page paper documenting the origins of traffic law in Western Civilization. The writer provides an overview of the basic history from thousands of years ago to the present (literally from chariots to automobiles !) behind traffic laws and the progression from the origin to the need for laws in the present day. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Lawtraff.wps

Isaac Newton vs. William Blake : An 11 page discussion of the move from the Romantic into the Modern World (transitions from Romanticism to Realism) with a comparison & contrast of Sir Isaac Newton and William Blake complemented by a discussion their differences and similarities. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Blakenew.wps

Origins of the Santa Claus Legend : A 10 page paper discussing the history behind the legend of Santa Claus and the traditions accepted in American culture today. The writer attempts to put into perspective the life of Nicholas of Myra and the good deeds that brought him to fame. Nicholas' became legendary after committing a number of acts of kindness, including destroying the temple of Artemis in Patara. Critics argue that Nicholas' was not a humanitarian, but a religious zealot. The writer attempts to answer this charge, while also presenting the legend's importance in European and American traditions. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Claus.wps

Leonardo DaVinci : A 10 page overview of Leonardo DaVinci's life & work. Bibliography lists 7 sources. End notes. Davinci.wps

Saint Gregory of Nyssa : This 7 page paper explores this historical figure's life as well as his contributions to theology. St. Gregory believed that stability is perfection and that alteration is not good; thus it was inevitable that humankind "fell" from perfection and needed to return to a static state of existence that they so admired.Bibliography lists 8 sources. Nyssa.wps

Vlad Tepes : A 5 page paper on the man most often noted as the original Dracula. Most of the paper is a general description of his life and times, with the end of the paper giving a brief analysis of what can be inferred from his life. Bibliography included. Vladtepe.wps

Luther and Erasmus on Sin and Salvation : A 5 page research paper on two great figures of the Reformation and their religious views. The writer details theories of the sacraments and whether faith or works were primary to salvation. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Erasmus.doc

Film Review / The Return of Martin Guerre and the Sixteenth Century : A 5 page essay on the movie of the same name and what it shows about life in the period . The writer details the place of women, social mobility, changing rights, and facets of everyday life. No bibliography. Guerre.wps

Nostradamus / Life & Works : A 3 page look at the life of Michel de Nostradamus, the "man who saw tomorrow," his work in saving victims of the Plague, his oath of secrecy, and some of the true predictions he is believed to have made about our own present and future. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Nostrada.wps

The Social Structure of Portugal as Reflected in the Work of Eša de Queiroz :
A 6 page paper primarily dealing with the social history of Portugal. It discusses how little Portugal changed between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries, and touches on the work of realist writer Eša de Queiroz, who attempted to address Portugal’s social backwardness. No sources. Queiroz.wps

Othello / In The Tradition Of The Renaissance : A 3 page essay on the play "Othello" and how it related both to Shakespeare himself and to the Renaissance period. Examples of themes introduced in the story are used to illustrate how Othello was both a hero and outsider... different, yet acceptable, -- and thus, an exemplary figure from Renaissance literature. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Othshake.wps

Othello & Renaissance Humanism : A 3 page essay, -- using quotes from the original play-- which describes Shakespeare's "Othello" as a work typical of the Renaissance's emphasis on humanism. The writer discusses the development of Othello's character and the underlying themes of outsider prejudice which run throughout the story. No Bibliography. Othelrel.wps

Portrayal of Women in European Paintings : A 5 page research paper exploring how women are portrayed in paintings. The writer describes images of women in a few key 20th century European paintings, and the social and cultural influences on these portrayals. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Artfemi2.wps

Human Nature in Renaissance Art : A 20 page paper describing the view of human nature on renaissance art. The writer describes the Renaissance belief in humanism and its effects on the view of human nature and how this is portrayed in art of the time. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Renaissat.wps

Everything Baroque : A 5 page overview of the power contrasts developed because of the extended world view during the Baroque period. These contrasts resulted in changes in theology, politics and intellectual thought, which in turn led to different views in economic, social and technological processes. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Evbaroq.wps

Prostitution / A Cross-Cultural History & Analysis : A 5 page paper on this history of "the world's oldest profession"-- prostitution. The writer discusses the shape and form that prostitution has taken throughout history with respect to individual cultures and societies such as the Ancient Greeks, Romans, Church in the Middle Ages, and more recent eras as well. The role of law, societal opposition, and venereal disease is stressed with regard to prostitution in more recent times. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Prosthis.wps

The Colonial Capitals Of Goa & Batavia : A 7 page paper comparing the Dutch and Portuguese colonial capitals of Goa and Batavia. Issues concerning trade and imperialism are explored in considerable detail. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Goaand.wps

Robert C. Lamm’s "Humanities In Western Culture" : This 15 page report examines the theories and examples presented in Lamm’s book, while also reviewing some of the most fundamental aspects of western culturalism and its role in the development of humankind throughout the world. Bibliography lists a dozen sources. Lamm.wps

*Be Sure To Check Out All of the Literature & Music Sections For More Western Civ. papers!

*Papers On Europe From 1700 - Present Can Be Found In The MODERN EUROPE Section!

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THE GREEKS & ROMANS
SPECIFICALLY
(*See also 'Mythology')

Ancient Law / The Rights Of A Patron : A 5 page paper discussing the relationship between the Digest that was part of the Corpus Iuris Civilis ordered recorded by Emperor Justinian of the early Byzantine Empire, c. 534. Only two Articles of the body of civil law of the Empire are examined here (Articles XIV and XV), but their relationship to the evolution of the lord and serf relationship of medieval Europe is clear. Remarkably, they even retain applicability to life today. Ariticles XIV and XV address the rights of the patron and the obedience to parents and patrons required of children who were under the age of majority, which at that time was 25. Bibliography lists 1 source. Patrons.doc

The Amateurization of Sports : An 8 page research paper on the history ancient sports. The writer details the origins of the types of sports, the Greek influence, and the Roman end of amateurization. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Amasport.wps

Impact of Greek Civilization on Western Culture : A 15 page research paper which examines the contributions made by ancient civilization to Western culture. The writer looks specifically at such Greek contributions as democratic principles, ideas on the importance of the individual, the systematic observation of the natural world, as well as Greek contributions to the fine arts of theatre and sculpture. Bibliography lists 4 sources. humwestc.wps.

Education in Ancient Greece : A 5 page research paper which examines the educational systems of ancient Athens and Sparta. While the writer deals briefly with the militaristic and brutal educational system of Sparta, the concentration of the paper deals with the development of the educational system in Athens. Topics covered include details regarding elementary education, and how the philosophical and rhetorical schools of Plato and Isocrates developed. Bibliography includes 5 sources. Edugree.wps

The Greeks & The Romans / & Similarities : A 6 page paper on the ways in which the Roman empire under Augustus was patterned after the Greeks. The writer discusses some of the similarities and differences, and answers the give some insight as to why Rome chose to be that way. No bibliography. Romegree.wps

Greek & Roman Law -- A Causal Relationship? : A 12 page paper discussing whether or not Greek concepts of law had any significant effect in the formation of the famous Roman codes. The paper points out several areas in which a definite relationship is shown. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Grlaw.wps

Ancient Greek and Roman Music : This 7 page paper looks at Ancient Greek and Roman music with a particular emphasis on the instruments they used. New research is shown to indicate that people who lived in earlier times were more sophisticated than once thought, even playing similar instruments and employing comparable techniques. Bibliography lists 5 sources.  Ancmusic.doc

Ancient Cyprus : This 10 page paper provides an overview of the ancient civilization and culture of the island of Cyprus. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Acyprus.wps

The Athenian Government : 4 page review of A.H.M. Jones' book entitled "Athenian Democracy." Book explores classic governments in Athens and makes mention of their historical relevancy to our own style of democracy in these contemporary United States. Athdemoc.wps

The Rise & Fall Of Athens : An 8 page paper that provides an overview of the rise of the Athenian democracy and then the events that led to its fall from 510-360 BC. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Ath.wps

The Athenian Polis : A 5 page essay examining how the writers and philosophers of Classic Greece criticized Athenian politics/the Athenian polis in their works. Mentioned are Aeschylus, Aristophanes, Euripedes, and Socrates. No Bibliography. Athenpol.wps

Plutarch’s "On Sparta" / Historical Significance : This 7 page paper discusses the historical significance of the book On Sparta, written by Greek biographer and essayist Plutarch. No additional sources cited. Plutarch.wps

Agoras, Greek & Roman : A 6 page paper that explores the ancient Greek and Roman architecture of agoras (public squares), including their construction, materials, structures, ornamentation, and social significance. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Agoras.wps

Cultural Discourse : A 5 page creative dialogue between 1 fictitious character from ancient Greece and one from Rome in which the two share political and cultural ideas during their travels. Bibliography lists 1 source. Culture.doc

Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War : A 5 page summarization of major themes in Thucydides accounts of the Peloponnesian War. This paper presents the historical perspective prior to the onset of the war. It also contains consideration of the major thematic considerations of the era, including focus on democracy, morality, ambition, leadership and wealthy. The primary source is cited. Pelop.wps

The Culture of Greece & Thucydides’ "The Peloponnesian War" : A 4 page paper that considers the representation of culture presented by Thucydides in his work The Peloponnesian War. This paper demonstrates the differences between Sparta and Athens that led to the war, as well as the perceptions of culture in other city states. Bibliography lists no additional sources. Grpel.wps

Ancient Grecian Temple Priests : A 6 page essay examining the roles of the priest in the religion of ancient Greece. The Grecians had a god for every occurrence of nature and for every condition or abstract thought, and they were responsible for duly worshipping each in order to avoid the wrath of any god or goddess that might feel slighted. Consulting with a god meant consulting with the oracle ensconced in the most important holy places; the priest associated with the particular site was to interpret the sayings of the oracle, translating them into a language that the more common types could understand. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Grecian.wps

Greek Religious Practices / Hellenic vs. Hellenistic Era : Is a 5 page paper contrasting early Greek Olympian religious practices which could be called Hellenic, themselves a result of combining a variety of cultures settling the Greek region, and including the later rise of mystery cults and a variety of philosophies, with the diaspora of Greek culture during the Hellenistic imperial era after Alexander the Great’s conquests. The analysis stresses the many cross-cultural influences during both eras. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Greek Relig.wps

A Comparison Between The Han Dynasty And The Ancient Greeks : 6 pages in length. A comparative paper in which the writer attempts to reconcile how classic Greeks would view China during the time of the Han Dynasty. The writer explores various differences in the politics and culture of these two groups. Chinagre.wps

Aegean Art : A 4 page study of art in the region surrounding Greece before the insurgence of the more traditionally known Greek period of art. Previous to Classical Greek art the Aegean art composed of several types of art forms that generally contained smooth and curved lines. The subject of art was oriented much more towards nature and animals than the Greek period that was to follow. The Aegean period includes the Minoan, Mycenaen, and Cycladic art forms. Bibliography included. Ancient.wps

Ancient Greek Art : A study of ancient Greece and the art form it produced. This period in time produced many forms of art. The art of the ancient Greeks was to influence the world greatly as many buildings were built with Greek architecture in mind. Even today we still see its influences in most of our government buildings across the nation. The sculptures, paintings and architecture were highly charged and elegant. It was an incredibly influential period in history that has perhaps not been surpassed by any period since. Grekart.wps

The Use of Color in Ancient Greece : This 7 page paper discusses the use of color throughout the time between and including the Geometric and Hellenistic periods. Ceramics and paintings are among the many art examples provided. Bibliography lists 13 sources. Colorgre.wps

Early Greek Architecture : Approximately 10 pages in length. Paper examines periods and styles in early Greek architecture. Bibliography lists 7 sources (also includes annotated bibliography as well). Grrek.wps

The Evolution Of Greek Sculpture : A 15 page discussion of the evolution of Greek sculpture with an emphasis on drapery treatment over time. Bibliography lists eight sources. Greekscu.wps

The Life and Works of Euclid of Alexandria : This 10 page paper gives a brief overview of the Greek mathematician, Euclid. He was the chief architect of the concept and science of geometry. Bibliography lists five sources. Euclid.wps

Philosophy & The Greek Orthodox Church : Comprehensive, 25 page discussion of the Greek Orthodox Church and its fundamental origins in the works of classic Greek philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Bibliography lists 19+ sources. Greekort.wps

Epigrams in Hellenistic Poetry : The first Hellenistic poets began to rediscover an earlier tradition and adopted the same themes and style of older Greek lyric masters. This 6 page essay examines the use of wit, sarcasm, and so forth in classic Hellenistic poems. The writer discusses the use of epigrams in terms of the various socio-political structures which probably led to their popularity at the time. It should be noted that the emphasis here is more upon the reasons for epigrams than on the poems or poetry itself. Mentioned are Callimachus, Herodus, Theocritus, and Apollonius of Rhodes. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Hellenis.wps

The Kings of Mesopotamia : This five-page paper gives an overview of the kings reigning over Mesopotania – how they were treated, what ceremonies they participated in, how their subjects revered them. Bibliography lists four sources. Mesoking.wps

Essays on Classic / Ancient Greece : 8 pages worth of short independent essays on the history of Western Civilization. Included is a contrast between the societies of Athens and Sparta (Greece), the Greek's intellectual rationalization for Astrology, and more. Bibliography lists 3+ sources. Kimexam.wps

Cleopatra, Myth and Reality : A 9 page research paper which explores the myths surrounding the famous queen. The writer’s demonstrates how Cleopatra was first, the victim of Roman propaganda; and then, the victim of 2,000 years of male-oriented prejudice. The paper includes a brief description of Cleopatra’s life as seen through a feminist perspective and also includes references as to her treatment in literature and the media. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Cleomyth.wps

The Roman Empire / Its Rise & Fall : A 6 page paper analyzing the reasons for the creation of the Roman Empire as well as how these same factors led to its eventual collapse. The paper points out that there was simply no way that an Empire so huge and so culturally diverse could be managed at all, let alone imbued with a common sense of purpose. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Romanemp.wps

Looking At The Past For Answers To The Future / The Culture Of Ancient Rome : This 10 page paper examines social problems of today in comparison with those of Ancient Rome's. An historical overview is first provided that concentrates on the rule of Julius Caesar. Facts about Ancient Rome are gleaned from a variety of sources, inclusive of the art work the ancient world is famous for. An intense examination of this early culture concludes that they study of the ancient world is relevant to us today. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Ancrome.wps

Politechnical Contributions of Ancient Rome & Its Benevolent Despots :
A 5 page essay that reviews the contributions made by the Roman Empire, despite the flawed personalities of its emperors. In an analogy to 1998 politics, the paper argues that the Roman emperors helped recreate the world by building information highways, instigating systems of international diplomacy, and increasing trade, despite the despotism evident in its "benevolent" leadership. Three emperors are reviewed for their character, Caesar, Caligula and Domitian. Shakespeare’s Claudius is also mentioned. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Despots.wps

Roman Architecture : An 11 page paper on Roman architecture focusing on such subtopics as the dome construction of temples & civic monuments, city planning, theaters, the Domus, triumphal arches, Roman tombs, and more. In addition to discussion culture, purpose, and general aesthetics, the writer also makes mention of the tools and methods used to construct these great architectural works. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Romanarc.wps

Roman Architecture # 2 : This subject is evaluated in terms of its influence on western architecture in this 5 page paper. Also discussed are social factors present when the structures were built as compared with mores and systems present today. Also included is discussion on building materials and style which is compared and contrasted with western art. Government buildings, stadiums, bath houses, importance of the bedroom and magnificence of the gardens are each highlighted. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Romanar.wps

Augustus Caesar / An Overview of His Life : A 6 page overview of the life and accomplishments of Augustus Caesar. Includes his adoption by Julius Caesar, his military and societal pursuits, and the questions surrounding his death and his passage of his throne to his stepson, Tiberius. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Acaes.wps

Caesar Augustus : A 5 page paper discussing the life and accomplishments of Caesar Augustus, the great-nephew and successor of Julius Caesar. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Caugu.wps

Caius Julius Caesar Germanicus : A 7 page paper discussing Lord Acton’s famous quote, "Power corrupts & absolute power corrupts absolutely," in relation to Caius Julius Caesar Germanicus. The writer analyzes his reign and puts forth the theory that he exemplified Acton’s quote, as well as Rome's failure to prevent this. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Caligula.doc

The Military Campaigns of Julius Caesar : An 8 page research paper on the military campaigns of Roman leader, Julius Caesar. In general, the paper details Caesar's rise, his war efforts, his problems, and his eventual downfall. An excellent resource for those studying Roman politics and/or civilization. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Juliusc.wps

Ovid’s "Metamorphoses" / Evidence of Tragedy : A 5 page paper discussing two stories in Ovid’s Metamorphoses, "Apollo and Daphne" and "Pyramus and Thisbe." In an attempt to prove that these stories are tragedies, a definition of tragedy is provided and a number of examples from the book are excerpted. The primary source is cited. Ovid.wps

Suetonius’ "The Twelve Caesars" -- Discussion Of Augustus And Tiberius :
A 6 page paper that describes the reigns of the first two real emperors of Rome. The paper gives a short explanation of Suetonius and the framework from which he wrote, then discusses and contrasts the administrations and policies of Augustus and Tiberius, dealing particularly with the difficulties of the transfer of power between them. No Bibliography. Caesar.wps

Suetonius’ ‘‘The Twelve Caesars’’ / Reflection Roman Culture & Society :
A 5 page essay that looks at what can be learned about Roman culture from this ancient document. 12c.wps

Terence : The life and works of this important early Roman dramatist are discussed in a 7 page paper. Compared are the author's life challenges to those of the characters in his plays, citing examples from works such as The Girl From Andros, The Eunuch, and The Brothers. Historical facts about Ancient Rome are noted in relationship to the thesis. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Terence.wps

Cornelius Tacitus As Impartial Historian : A 4 page paper discussing the bias of Cornelius Tacitus displayed in The Annals of the Roman Empire. Bibliography lists 1 source. Tacitus.wps

Shakespeare, Mankiewicz, & Plutarch / Three Views Of Julius Caesar : A 6 page paper comparing the 1953 film of Julius Caesar directed by Joseph Mankiewicz with the real historical events. The paper concludes that the film version of Julius Caesar succeeds -- through some slight transformations in historical fact -- in bringing history to life, and making us care about it in the bargain. Bibliography lists two sources. Viewsc.wps

The Sarakatsani Of Mesopotamia & Modern Gypsies in Rome : In this 12 page paper, the writer provides an overview of the Sarakatsani of Mesopotania, -- who are the forebearers of contemporary Gypsies in Rome. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Gyprome.wps

The Roman Mob By P.A. Brunt : A 5 page paper that considers the subject of the Roman mob as it relates to the transformation of Rome from a republic to an Empire. Bibliography lists no additional sources. Brunt.wps

Nobility in Medieval Literature : A 5 page paper describing the role of nobility in the Middle Ages. The writer uses Dante's Inferno as a primary source, and describes how Dante presented the noble class. Bibliography cites four sources. Inferno.wps

The Role Of Women & Non-Elites In Renaissance Italy : A 5 page paper that considers the role of women and non-elites in Renaissance Italy and outlines the elements of the Italian court. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Italian.renaissance.doc

Women In Medieval Times / Book Review : A 4 page critique of Powell's book entitled "Medieval Women." The writer describes and evaluates the book's thesis : that there were two primary roles played by women in Medieval society; women in subjection to men and women as a symbol of worship. Full citation for the book is provided. Medwomen.wps

Modern Greek Culture : A 10 page research paper on the culture of modern Greece. The writer explores the gender roles, ethnicity, language, and religion, and other important influences in modern Greek society. Specific examples of Greek ritual and tradition are provided. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Mdrngrk.wps

The History of the Greek Community in Chicago : An 8 page paper that provides an overview of the problems and social elements that surround the emergence of the Greek culture in Chicago and that has supported the prevallence of elements like the Greek Orthodox Church in the United States. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Chicgrek.wps

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OTHER ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS

Effects Of The Discovery Of Agriculture : A 4 page essay postulating that it was this basic discovery that was the first ‘‘domino’’ in the chain which led to the creation of early civilization. No bibliography. Causeeff.wps

Ancient Laws / Deific Codification : A 10 page research overview of Mesopotamian, Spartan, and Hebraic Law, and the Code of Hammurabi. The writer argues that the ancient laws were directed toward commerce and social control, but were most often based on reference to religious deities. The writer provides examples of the laws and the rulers that created or enforced the laws. Bibliography lists 13 references. Ancients.wps

The Code Of Hammurabi : In this 4 page essay, the writer reviews the laws included in the Code of Hammurabi and compares some of the edicts of this Code with current laws and punishments. Hammurabi's Code established a format that is still used today. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Codehamm.wps

Code of Hammurabi / Crime, Health & Politics : A 6 page research paper on the extent of the oldest "secular" legal code in history. The writer briefly touches on the Babylonian civilization, King Hammurabi, and discusses the intricacies of the code in regards to crime, medicine, and business. The paper states that the code was the predecessor to Greek code, which is given credit for being the predecessor of legal code in today’s society, but posits that the difference is that the Hammurabi code was the first functional set of laws looking out for the interests of all citizens. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Hamurab.wps

The Prisons of the Ancient Worlds : This 7 page research paper looks at the "prisons" of ancient biblical lands – Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, lands of the New and Old Testament. Rather than physical structures to keep people incarcerated, "prisons" were primarily slavery, banishment, or death. Bibliography lists ten sources. Ancpris.wps

Similarities & Differences In Social Groups & Cultures of Ancient Rome, Greece, Egypt, & Mesopotamia : A 3 page essay examining some of the similarities of these ancient civilizations, as well as their most significant differences. Bibliography lists three sources. Socialgr.wps

Hyksos / Semitic Origins : A 5 page research paper exploring the origins of the Hyksos who seized and ruled Egypt during the 15th and 16th Dynasties. Although their origins were thought to date back to Old Testament Hebrew by very early scholars (First Century AD), it is only in the last thirty years archeological finds have indicated the Hyksos had a strong affiliation with the Canaanites. This paper offers evidence of their origins. Hyksos.wps

Ancient Egyptian Architecture : 2 pages worth of notes and discussion about temples and various structures in Egypt nearly 4,000 years old. No Bibliography. Egypttemp.wps

The Pyramids Of Ancient Egypt : An 8 page paper on the great pyramids of ancient Egypt. Focusing upon the Pyramid at Giza, the Pharaoh's pyramids, and more,-- the writer examines architecture, purpose, use, etc; Bibliography lists 6 sources. Pyrdhist.wps

Early River Valley Civilizations : A 7 page paper that describes the social, agricultural, political and religious development of early river valley civilizations. The writer specifically offers a look at the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia and in the Nile River Valley. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Riverval.wps

(The) Etruscans : An 11 page report on the history, politics, economics, language, and art of the Etruscans - members of an ancient Western Civilization that flourished during the 1st millennium B.C. Bibliography lists 7+ sources. Etrusca2.wps

(The) Hanging Gardens of Babylon : A short, 3 page discussion of the Hanging Gardens of Bablyon, their story & features. Focus is upon what makes them one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Gardenba.wps

The Neolithic Age & The Dawn of Modern Civilization : 5 pages in length. An insightful research paper on the importance of The Neolithic Age-- the period just before the dawn of Egyptian Civilization -- which is known to have given birth to modern humanity, art, architecture, religion etc; Because there are so few written records of this era, we know so little about this time-- and yet this only adds to our fascination with it. Specific techniques for Neolithic art, architecture, pottery, carving, ritual, and more are described throughout most of the report. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Neolithi.wps

Ptolemy I Soter / Egyptian Pharaoh : A 5 page research report that reviews the works and accomplishments of an Egyptian Pharaoh who laid the foundation for the modern day university system. A General for Alexander the Great, Ptolemy I Soter's dream was to make Alexandria the world's greatest city. He accomplished this, in part, by establishing the Temple of Muses, his most noted contribution. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Ptolemy1.wps

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